Palace of the Shirvanshahs
In the XV century as a consequence of the rise of economic and political significance of Baku, which was one of the heavily fortified castles and the main port on the Caspian Sea, Shirvanshah Halilullah replaced Shirvanshahs’ residence from Shamakhy to Baku.
In connection with the flooding of the Sabail fortress the construction of a new palace was carried out on a new safe place in Baku on top of a hill. The ensemble was not built on a single architectural project and consists of a series of structures located under the relief on three levels: the main building of the palace (the 1420), Divankhana (1450), the tomb-turbot (1435), the Shah’s mosque with a minaret (1441), the mausoleum of Sayyid Yahya Bakuvi (1450) and the remains of the mosque Keygubada palace constructions include a portal on the eastern side – Murad’s gate (1585), a reservoir and the remnants of the bath.
According to some reports, to the north-east of the palace buildings were before the shah’s stables, but currently on the site are residential buildings.To the north of Divan-in one of the houses can be seen the base-preserved ancient walls, stonework which is similar to the masonry of the palace facade. Apparently it is the remains of the Palace of Shirvanshah buildings belonging to the ensemble of the palace. With the capture of Baku troops Safavies in 1501 the palace was sacked.
All the treasures of the Shirvan Shahs – weapons, armor, jewelry, carpets, precious brocade fabrics, rare books from the palace libraries, utensils of silver and gold Safavies took with them toTabriz. But after the battle of Chaldiran in 1514 between the army of the Ottoman Sultan Selim I and the Safavies, treasures Shirvanshahs Palace Turks got as trophies. At the present time the treasures Shirvanshakhs are in museum collections in Turkey, Iran, Britain, France, Russia and Hungary. Some of the palace carpet store at London’s Victoria and Albert Museum, and the ancient tomes from the palace library – Tehran stacks, Vatican, St. Petersburg.
In 1964 the complex was declared a museum-reserve and was taken under state protection. The unique architectural and cultural ensemble is included in the World Heritage UNESCO.