Historically, Nakhchivan, most of which is located at an altitude of more than 1000 meters above sea level, lies at a distance of 560 km from Baku. And you can get there today either by car through Iran, or by plane (there is no direct ground communication from Azerbaijan to Nakhchivan, since since 1990 Armenia was actually blockaded from autonomy). In addition, today from Nakhchivan can easily be reached by bus to the nearest major South-Azerbaijan city of Tabriz – it’s only 140 kilometers and two hours drive.Also there are buses from Nakhchivan to Turkey (eight buses a day run on the route Nakhchivan – Istanbul), which has an autonomous region with a direct border of 12 kilometers.
Right on the outskirts of the city line of Nakhchivan, along the Araz River runs the border with Iran and Turkey, and Nakhchivan itself is considered one of the oldest cities in the entire Caucasus. The first reminders of Nakhichevan date back to the 2nd century BC. The very name “Nakhchivan comes from” nagshi jahan “, which means” decoration of the world “. Although scientists say that it is quite possible that the city and the region received their name from the Turkish nakh, which once lived in the vicinity of the area.Two hours drive from Nakhchivan is the city of Ordubad. Here, at an altitude of almost four thousand meters, there is the Gamigaya rock with ancient drawings – petroglyphs (more than three thousand years old). In its vicinity, preserved a huge number of ancient tombstones, unique rock carvings and stone mounds. It is generally believed that the tribes lived in Gyamigaya as far back as the 1st century BC, squatting, they managed to create a fairly high culture. To protect against the raids of warlike neighbors, Gamigaya inhabitants built impressive fortifications, several fortresses and defensive redoubts.In the 12th century, the Azerbaijani state of the Ildenizit atabes emerged in Nakhchivan with a rich culture and impressive architecture. Later Nakhchivan quickly became rich, which was facilitated by its location on the famous Silk Road. But along with significant revenues from trade, Nakhchivan’s advantageous geographical location became the reason for the numerous raids of foreign armies.Around Nakhchivan there are many fortresses, of which Alinja-Gala is the most famous – for 14 years the troops of the Emir of Timur besieged this stronghold, but they could not take it. The territory of the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan is 5,500 square kilometers, 75 kilometers wide and 160 kilometers long and is 6.4 percent of the territory of Azerbaijan. The population of the region is about 400 thousand people, and in the city of Nakhchivan there are general consulates of Iran and Turkey. If you ask any Azerbaijani today what Nakhchivan is famous for, you will immediately be told: it was here that the most revered person in Azerbaijan – the former president of the country Heydar Aliyev was born. In his honor a museum was opened in the city, where the exhibits tell about the life and activity of a man, thanks to the efforts of which today Azerbaijan has taken place as an independent state. It is interesting that even in the time of H.Aliyev’s presidency, a museum dedicated to him was opened in Nakhichevan. In 2005, an order bearing his name was established in Azerbaijan in honor of Heydar Aliyev. In Nakhichevan there is also the Museum of Carpets, the so-called “Museum in the open air”, in which ancient stone sculptures, the museum of Azerbaijan literature are collected, there is also a university, one of the most famous in the country, where students are trained not only from all regions of Azerbaijan, but And neighboring Iran and Turkey (about 300 people). A city of Babek is located not far from Nakhchivan, where a unique complex of architectural monuments of Gultepe is preserved. Here are the fortresses of Oglangala and Giavorgala.