Yuxarı Keçid

Ganca

gyanga-1Undisputed glory in all Azerbaijan is enjoyed by the Ganjabasar region and Ganja itself, the ancient capital of Azerbaijan. This is the second largest city in the republic, it was here that the greatest Azerbaijani poet Nizami was born, as well as classics of poetry by Mehseti and Mirza Shafi Vazeh. This region is rich in mineral resources, sometimes called the Azerbaijan Urals, and the set of resort mountain and lake beauties – the Caucasian Switzerland. The city of Ganja itself was founded in ancient times. Under the foundations of many buildings of that time, again and again archeologists show evidence that people lived here much earlier – long before our era. There is the famous mosque of the Shah Ababs I Safavid (now it bears the name Juma Mosque), built in 1606 by the architect Bahaaddin. This mosque, for the first time in Azerbaijan, had double walls that allowed to keep the heat inside in winter and cool in the summer. Its 17-meter diameter dome was once covered with glazed tiles, but at the beginning of the last century they were replaced with metal sheets. In the translation, the word “ganja” means “treasure” (in its history the city was renamed repeatedly – it was called Elizavetpol, Kirovabad, and its original name was returned to him in 1989).gyanga-2The most famous and revered landmark of Ganja, of course, is the mausoleum of Javad Khan Ganjinsky. Khan and his eldest son perished in 1804 on fortress walls, protecting the city from Russian troops under the command of General PD Tsitsianov. The khan who was killed was buried solemnly and with great honors. Later, in 1812, the surviving members of the khan’s family were released from captivity. One of the oldest mausoleums of Ganja is Jomard Gassab, which was built during the time of the Arab Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (VII century). It is from here that the history of consolidation and development of Islam in the territory of Azerbaijan originates. After all, in those years Ganja was at the crossroads of the main trade routes, in the district there were multi-acid copper and iron mines, and the city was famous as the most important handicraft and trade center of the Central Caucasus. Every Azerbaijani knows that in 1918 Ganja was the capital of the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, which existed for just under two years. In the vicinity of Ganja, in the district center of Geigel, you can see the bridges that were called “two-eyed” (built across the Gyanjachai river in the 12th century) and “three-eyed” (built later in the 19th century). Here is one of the few Lutheran churches in the republic. It was erected by German colonists who once lived here, whom in 1941, on the orders of Stalin, were completely moved to Central Asia and Kazakhstan.