In the north of the country, lying on the border with Russia, from the sloping Caucasian slopes from the XVIII there was the Guba khanate. Today, the ruins of the ancient fortresses in Devici, Chiraggala Bastion, at the very top of the mountain and the defensive wall, which was built in the time of the Satonites to protect the northern borders of the empire, are preserved here today. From there, for tens of kilometers, an exciting panorama of the entire northern part of Azerbaijan opens, to the border with Dagestan. The largest in this region is the city of Guba, which is not accidentally called the paradise of Azerbaijani apples. Alexander Dumas, Tour Heyerdahl, many prominent literary men, geographers, historians visited here. We can say that all those who went to study the Caucasus, considered it their duty to visit Guba and get acquainted with the life of the local population. Not far from Guba is the village Afurdzha, on the outskirts of which there is an 80-meter waterfall. If you make your way through the neighboring wild gorge, you can get to another stunning Koonhart waterfall, near which the ancient pools with healing warm water coming from underground hydrogen sulfide springs are cut in the rocks. Immediately beyond the city limits of the village is the village of Krasnaya Sloboda – one of the places of compact residence of the mountain Jews, who settled here 280 years ago, during the reign of Abbasali Khan. Before the establishment of Soviet power, this settlement was called the Jewish Sloboda. Earlier, more than 16 thousand people lived here, and now there are only a little more than three thousand inhabitants in the Red Sloboda, as the rest (mainly the male population of the village) went to work in Baku or the cities of Russia or emigrated to the homeland of their ancestors-Israel. It is curious that mountain Jews came to Azerbaijan in the 5th century from Mesopatamia, which belonged to the Sassanids, and they speak the language of the Sassanids, and they speak a language that is considered one of the Iranian dialects. This language is still preserved by the residents of the Red Settlement for intra-family communication. If you leave from Luba to the mountains, then in about three hours drive by car you can get to the most unique and unusual village of Azerbaijan-Khinalig, about three thousand inhabitants of which speak a special language that has been preserved since the times of the Albanian state. Strabo and Pliny wrote about this village at one time. Once Khinalig for the language uniqueness and isolation from the outside world was even called the “dream of linguists” and “a nightmare for the conquerors”. There used to be only winding horse trails, and through the pass to the village could only be reached in the summer. Hynalyg is located 60 km from Guba and is located in a mountainous area at an altitude of 2100 meters, almost all its houses have flat roofs, and the roof of the lower house serves as an inner courtyard and a front garden for a “second floor” house. In winter here because of snow drifts It is impossible to get there, and therefore everything necessary for living in Khinalig is imported in the warm season. In the summer, locals usually descended to the plain for salt, engaged in petty barter trade, remaining very honest to the point that they simply could not sell anything to residents of other villages with a “fuss” for themselves. Until now, most residents of Khinaliga go in felt hats and dense woolen pants, which save in the mountains from cold and frost. On the feet of the villagers wear wiggles – soft shoes made of rawhide hide that do not slip on ice and snow and for practicality are pulled together by lacing at the shins, woolen socks of homemade binding, on which women, traditionally, embroider stylized images of animals.The walls in the houses are hung with colored carpets to keep the heat inside the house. There are no windows in such houses-instead of them a round hole is made in the ceiling, and smoke from the hearth leaves through this hole. There is not enough firewood and firewood to heat the house on the surrounding mountains: nothing grows in these places, because at such altitude there is almost no oxygen for any vegetation. At night, holes in the roofs of houses, through which smoke goes out, are closed with copper trays to keep heat inside the home. The opening in the roof of the house serves not only to eradicate the smoke, but also a kind of door for neighbors who want to visit the house downstairs, descending into it from the “second floor”.