South Touristic Zone
Salyan The population of the district is 115 600 people; District center, the city of Salyan – 36100 people. SALYANSKIY region is located in the southeast of Azerbaijan, in the LYANKARAN-ASTARIN region, which is distinguished by its distinctive cultural and historical traditions, unique plant world, famous for its long-livers, original cuisine with an abundance of fish dishes, and has been inhabited since ancient times. The Salyan region is a kind of gateway to this unique region – there are transport arteries of the republic, highway and railway linking all of Azerbaijan with its southern regions, as well as the countries of the Middle East. In ancient times various tribes settled in this region, they succeeded each other in the waves of history, and became one of the components of the ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijani people. By the self-designation of one of the ancient tribes – “sal” – this area and got its name. One of the main rivers of the country, KURA, flows along the territory of the Salyan region, and from the east it is the Caspian sea coast. Here is the State National Park “Shirvan” (it was transformed from the reserve of the same name in 2003 year). The reserve itself was organized in 1969 to protect and reproduce the characteristic plant complexes of the Shirvan lowland (semi-deserts and wetland ecosystems). Here is also the reserve “BYANDOVAN”, formed in 1961 on the area of 30 thousand hectares. It covers parts of the territories of the two administrative regions – Salyan and Garadagh – and was created with the aim of preserving and restoring the number of gazelles, waterfowl, strepets. This area is also interesting from the point of view of archeology and preserved historical and architectural monuments. Here, in the 70-80s of the 20th century, a number of objects dating back to the Middle Ages were discovered. These sites were once developed trade and artisan centers, which is confirmed by the mass finds of products made of ceramics, glass and stone. In connection with the rise in the Caspian Sea, these settlements were under water. To study this so-called “Caspian Atlantis” a stationary underwater archaeological expedition was created under the leadership of V.Kvachidze. With the findings of this expedition it is possible to get acquainted today in the Baku Museum of History of Azerbaijan.Here, in the area, there are also a number of archaeological sites covering the period from the Bronze Age to the early Middle Ages. Among them, necropolis MARYMLY, necropolis of pitchers burial places in villages. GYURSANG, ruins of ancient settlements in the modern villages of NOHOUDLU and MAHMUDABAD. In 5 km from the regional center one of the numerous mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan, Babazanan, is located, which attracts local residents with the healing properties of its mud. Before reaching Salyan, in the area of Dashgil, near the shore of the sea, you can see a mud volcano. There is also a reserve “Dashgil” – a place for hunting waterfowl and fishing for kutum, carp and other Caspian fish. SALYAN is the administrative center of the Salyan region, distance from Baku is 126 km. There is an ancient mosque of the XIX century – an architectural monument, protected by the state. To the services of travelers and tourists, the modern CARAVAN-SARAY is now built, where you can taste the dishes of local, old Azerbaijani cuisine. You can stop in the motel “CALIFORNIA”, located on the road from Baku, not reaching a little to Salyan, near the sea shore. In Salyan itself, you can also dine at the TANDIRKHANA restaurant and numerous outdoor cafes. Bilasuvar The population of the area is 78900 people; District center, the city of Bilyasuvar – 18 thousand people. BILYASUVARA district borders on Iran in the west. The local climate – semi-deserts and dry steppes with dry summers, – climatic features contributed to the development of cotton growing, cereals, livestock. According to one version, the name of this area is connected with the search for water – “there is water” here, on the other – with the craftsmen of water detection in the desert area – “knowing where there is water”. As in all the territory of Azerbaijan, inhabited since ancient times, as evidenced by the numerous archaeological finds and remains of architectural monuments, the monuments of the ancient history of the region are reminiscent of: CHILH AGDAM, IKHARI AGDAM, TORAGAYSKY (the period of antiquity and the early Middle Ages). Most of these archaeological sites, unfortunately, have not yet been studied. BILYASUVAR is a small city, which is 182 km away from Baku. You can stop here in the hotel, guest house; Dine – you can also in shashlik and the club “ZIRVYA”. Jalilabad The population of the region is 177,700 people; District center, the city of Jalilabad – 35700 people. JALILABAD DISTRICT is located on the border of the Kura-Araz lowland, climatic zones – from moderately warm with an almost even distribution of precipitation to semi-deserts and dry steppes with dry summers. On the territory of the region are the rivers INJAKAI, BULGARCHAY, MISHARCHAY, GYTEPECHAY. The specific features of climate and relief have caused intensive development of viticulture here, although in previous times this region was the main supplier of various types of cereals for the whole country. Currently, this tradition is actively reviving. There are beautiful places for hunting here, almost 14.7 thousand hectares are forests. In the hunting farm ZAVAR, for example, you can hunt waterfowl. Fauna – wolves, hares, badgers, foxes, wild boars, wild ducks, geese, eagles, and so on. The city of Jalilabad is the administrative center of Jalilabad region, distance from Baku is 208 km. On the outskirts of the city archaeologists discovered and excavated the town of Hamshahratepa. Items of material culture of the Eneolithic Age were found. Scientists suggest that it was here that the well-known MAGO tribe lived – one of the Aryan tribes of the early Zoroastrian era. Natives of the Mage tribe traditionally became priests of this ancient religion and replenished the ranks of its highest priestly caste. They owned the art of healing, Zoroastrian astrology. They knew so much, that over time the self-name of the tribe became a common noun – “magic.” Here, in the small hills of the ancient settlement of Hamshahratepa, objects of everyday life and tools were found for the preparation of KHAMA, a cult drink of the Zoroastrian religion. A large number of mounds, settlements, settlements, necropolises (periods from the Bronze Age to the early Middle Ages) were found on the territory of the region. The oldest name of the city is Khasyli, later it was renamed ASTRAKHAN-BAZAR. The current name is given to the city in honor of the outstanding Azerbaijani satirist Jalil Mammadkulizade – the founder and permanent editor of the first satirical magazine “MOLLA NAZREDDIN” in the East. In Jalilabad there is a small museum of local lore, a park, a hotel, a motel. At the service of those who wish to dine in the city are many small restaurant-barbecues, the restaurant “YURD”. Masalli The population of the region is 180,300 people; The district center, the city of Masalli – 9,400 people. MASALLA DISTRICT is located along the main transport artery of the region – the road from the capital of Azerbaijan to the south, to Iran. One of the boundaries of the region is the seaside of the Caspian Sea, the other is the Talysh Mountains. The contrast relief of the terrain – mountains and plains (Lankaran lowland), caused climatic differences – from moderately warm with dry summer to subtropical. The rivers that flow here – Vilyash, Alvadichay, Tatyan, etc., flow into the Caspian Sea. Masalli region is rich in mineral springs – both thermal and cold, some – with a large content of sulfur and other trace elements. In one of the picturesque mountainous areas of the region is located the mineral source ISTISU – the source water is medicinal. They come here for treatment and just relax, – the place here is very beautiful, with a waterfall of thermal water and a suspension bridge. Istisu is a very popular medicinal mineral water, bottles of which can be purchased at pharmacies of the country. THE CITY OF MASALLY is the administrative center of the Masalli region, the distance from Baku is 230 km. On this place in ancient times lived the tribe “masal”, – remaining in the memory of the people, it determined the modern name of the city. On the outskirts of the city, in the forest there is a small picturesque lake, which is a favorite place of rest for both city guests and local residents. Historical and architectural monuments on the territory of the city are the mosque of the XIX century, the ancient bath, the tower of Erkivan, the museum of local lore; In the surrounding villages DIGYAKH and BORADIGYAKH – mosques of the XVI century, the mausoleum of SEDY SADYGA. Products of traditional handicrafts (mats, shawls, pottery and wood products, carpets, jorabs) are made in the villages MUSAKYUDZHA, TYURKOBA, GARIBLYAR, Kolatan, SYGDASH and others. On the road from Masalli to Lankaran, on the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea (Gulf GYZILAGACH) is located GYZYLAGACHY reserve, which includes the entire water area of the bay, as well as adjacent land areas. The reserve was established in 1929, the year for the protection and reproduction of aquatic, wetland and grassland birds, protection of aquatic and semi-natural systems, which are the place of wintering birds, including, and in the Red Book (of 248 species of birds and 54 species of fish). BASE OF RECREATION “DASHTWENT” Located near the village of Arkivan, these are cottages and a hotel equipped according to the city’s European standards. Comfortable rooms with air conditioning, bathtubs, bar, satellite TV; sauna, restaurant, bar, conference room, a pond with a romantic gazebo, there is a possibility of fishing. You can also stop and relax in the recreation areas of DEMIR AGACH, RASIM, in the sanatorium TURAN. Lankaran The territory of the LYANKARAN DISTRICT occupies the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea and the entire Lankaran lowland to the Talysh Mountains. On the local coast of the Caspian Sea there are many beautiful sandy beaches. The humid-subtropical climate, the absence of a harsh winter, dry, hot summer and rainy autumn determined the richness of the flora and fauna of this region. The rivers – Lyankaran, Verapul, Gumbashi, Boladi, – their waters are replenished, mainly by rainfall, – in the spring and autumn the stormy ones, in the summer they become quieter and noticeably shallow. Therefore, for irrigation of crops there is built HANBULANCHAYSKAYA WATER RESERVOIR. Lankaran region is another important agricultural region of Azerbaijan, special climatic conditions of which led to the cultivation of subtropical crops – tea, mandarins, persimmons, feijoa, several varieties of lemons. This is the main region of the country where famous Lankaran tea is grown, not inferior in quality and aroma to classic Indian tea. It is not without reason that skilled craftsmen appeared: the region is rich in unique tree species, including relict and endemic. Iron tree, cork, velvet birch, Hirkan boxwood, silk acacia, oak, eucalyptus and the main forest tree of Talysh forests of Lankaran – broad-leaved oak. In addition, the forests have many wild fruit trees, herbs and shrubs. Therefore, it is not surprising that two nature reserves and a reserve have been created on the territory of the district. “Gyzyl-Agach” Reserve is located on the south-western coast of the Caspian Sea, in the Gizil-Agachsky Bay area. The reserve’s grounds include the entire water area of the Great Gyzyl-Agachsky Bay and the northern part of the Lesser Gyzyl-Agach Bay, as well as adjacent sections of the coast. The reserve was established in 1929 to protect and reproduce wintering and migratory waterfowl, marsh and steppe birds. There are 248 species of birds and 54 species of fish. Also on the territory of 21 435 hectares is the Girkan Reserve, which in 2004 was transformed into the GIRKAN NATIONAL PARK (it occupies part of the territory of the Astara Lankaran region). The Small Gizil-Agach Reserve was established in 1978 (an area of 10.7 thousand hectares) on the Small Kyzyl-Agach Bay to protect and restore the number of wintering, migratory water-swamp and waterbirds, including rare and endangered birds . Directly borders with the reserve “Gyzyl-Agach”. THE CITY OF LYANKARAN is the administrative center of the Lankaran region. The population is 193.7 million people, the distance from Baku is 268 km. It is a city whose favorable geographical location, fertile land and natural resources have always attracted people here. Lankaran is located in the southeast of the country, on the bank of the Liankaryanka River. It is believed that it originated here, not far from the sea, three hundred years ago. There was built a fortress with watchtowers and a lighthouse was built. The aboriginal name of the city – LENGERKYUNAN – meant “anchorage”, that is, the port. Now, from the architectural and historical monuments, the Khan’s palace of KHAN EVI with the original ornament of the facade, the KICHIK GALA mosque, the GYULDAST minaret, the ancient bathhouse of HAJI MIRZA are preserved here. You can get acquainted with the history of the region by visiting the History Museum, the building of which is also interesting from the point of view of architecture. In the city there are workshops of arts and crafts, in which the masters are engaged in carving – on wood, stone, and metal. In Lankaran there is a theater, the first performance in which took place in 1850, and the whole collection from it was transferred to the local poor. This city presented Azerbaijan with glorious commanders – generals Azi Aslanova, who has a monument erected here. The museum exposition was opened in the house where he was born and lived. In the vicinity of Lankaran – in villages Boladi, Vilvan, Veravul developed traditional crafts such as jewelry, carpet weaving, weaving reed (according to some sources, the entire city of Lankaran was built on marshland, overgrown with reeds). Of the architectural and historical monuments in the vicinity of Lankaran, the tower Abirlar has survived to the present day in the village of Yukhary Nyuvedi; The tower of Shaykh Zahid in the village Shikhakaryan; and to the west of Lankaran preserved ancient ruins of BALABUR, the construction of which was used an interesting combination of materials – red bricks and river stone. In people, the fortress is still sometimes called “BOZ Gala” ( “Fortress Gray”), and is still preserved in the castle ceramic water pipes. In the 18th century, during the reign of Garakhan, Lankaran became the capital of the Talish Khanate. Its cultural and economic development began, the crafts began to blossom, especially the work with metals: blacksmithing and jewelry, making copper utensils. Lankaran became an important trade center through which goods from Iran, Central Asia, India, and Russia passed – there were 9 large markets with developed infrastructure in the city. Thanks to its favorable geopolitical position and wealth, the city always excited the aggressive appetites of neighboring khanates and larger states. In 1795, he was plundered by the troops of the Iranian Shah Mohammed Qajar. And in 1813, all the Lankaran Khanate was captured by Russia. Later this seizure was legalized by the Turkmenchay Treaty. LERIK The population of the district is 67400 people; The regional center, – the city of Lerik – 6900 people. LERIK DISTRICT is one of the most beautiful parts of Azerbaijan, situated high in the mountains of Talysh. Magnificent nature, clean mountain air, filled with forest aroma, springs, rivers, fertile soil – this land is well-known for its long-livers. Summer air temperature rarely exceeds +25 g. C, but abundant autumn rains sometimes make roads impassable, and some villages are difficult to access. In some, especially inaccessible corners of the Lerik forests, there is a leopard, now under the protection of a special program. There are conditions for hunting wild boar, fox, hares, birds (ducks, partridges). The highest peaks of the Talysh Mountains are Kemyur-Goy (2492 m) and Gizyurdu (2433 m). The history of this region is very original, and reflects the most interesting moments of the complex history of the whole country. In the territory of the Lerik region, many cultural and historical monuments have been preserved, indicating that these places were inhabited already in the Neolithic times. For example, Stone Age cave parking; . Ancient settlement “Giz Yurdu” near a mountain village Mistan at an altitude of 2430 m Mausoleums: BABA HASSAN near JOHN village, Baba Isa in MONDIGYAH village Hodge Seid in the village Khanaga (XIV c.), PIR YOUSIF near the village KEKONU, Jabir (XII – XIV centuries) and Khalifa Zakariya -. on the road to the village DZHENGEMIRAN in which, by the way, even the ancient and simply old trees are protected and honored by the residents. This village was visited at one time by Alexander Dumas, who reflected in one of his works the heroic destiny of a resident of this village. In the village of LYULYAKYARAN the original mosque of the XIX century was preserved. It is necessary to mention the numerous stone statues of rams that have survived in many villages. We have already mentioned that the region is famous for its long-livers. SHIRALI MUSLUMOV, for example, lived 163 years of active life (1812-1975), setting a world record; MAHMUD EYVAZOV lived 150 years (1808-1958 gg.). Here and now dozens of long-livers who have crossed the age-old line, do not lose their ability to work. From folk crafts here are developed carpet weaving, the manufacture of various household items from wood, as well as pottery. A feature of local carpet weaving is that the carpets are not woven on a vertical machine, but on a horizontal one, lying flat on the floor. CITY LERIC is the administrative center of Lerik region. The distance from Baku is 325 km. The city is located at the foot of the mountains, on a fertile plain. Here you can visit the Museum of the history of the region, see the memorial, established in memory of the victims of the Armenian-Azerbaijani, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Lodging can be provided by local residents, as well as numerous recreational areas, located on the road from Lankaran to Lerik, the most popular of which are Shelale and MESHYACHI. ASTARA The population of the region is 88,500 people; The regional center, the city of Astara – 14800 people. ASTARINSKY DISTRICT is located on the border with Iran, in the south-east of Azerbaijan. Part of the territory of the region is occupied by the Talysh Mountains, the other part is lowland, which determined the climatic peculiarity of this region. Forests occupy 37,000 hectares, the rivers ASTARACHAY and TENGERYUD originate high in the mountains of Talysh and flow into the Caspian Sea. Flora is rich and diverse – wild quince, medlar, hawthorn, blackberry, silk acacia, evergreen needles, representatives of the family of lianas. The famous iron tree (DAMIR AGACH) is also growing here, sinking in the water. From here, from ancient times, locals made weaving looms, and in the modern period – parts for weaving machine tools. The fauna is no less diverse than the flora: porcupines, roe deer, wolves, lynx, deer, etc. animals live freely in the local forests. The coast of the Caspian Sea is replete with sandy beaches with clear, transparent water. On the territory of the district is part of the Hyrcanus National Park, which makes these places attractive for ecotourism. In the Astara region, near the border with Iran, in the town of ISTI-SU, curative mineral springs are blowing. In the area of tea growing, vegetable growing, grown citrus. In the district there are a large number of historical and architectural monuments (about 400). Almost every village keeps traces, indicating that people here have lived since time immemorial. For example, the TOWER in the village of SHINDAN, which is popularly called the TOWER OF THE BABY; TOWER in the village of NUDIS; Bath MESHEDY ABUTALYBA, mosque GADZHI TAYMURA and GADZHI JAHAN BAKHYSHA in the village PENSAR; Mausoleum in the village of Shahagach; Bath KERBELAI GAMID ABDULLA in the village ARCHIVAN, where also is located the famous sulfur source, whose water flashes, if you bring a lit match to it; Ruins of the fortress, mausoleum, caravanserai of the 7th century, stone sculptures of the stone and bronze centuries in the village of GAPYCHIMAHALL. BRIDGES of the XIII century in the villages SYNYYAPERT, LOMIN, PILEKEN. ASTARA CITY is the administrative center of the Astara district. The distance from Baku is 322 km. The city is an important transit point on the Baku-Tehran highway. Astara is a border town, on the one hand, bounded by the sea, and on the other by Talish mountains. Around the city rice fields, developed fishing, which could not but affect the peculiarities of local national cuisine. In Astara there is a museum of local lore with a rather rich exposition. The real pride of the museum are not only ancient coins of different periods, evidencing the developed trade in ancient times, but also a stone sculpture of a man whose age is more than 2000 years. You can stop at the apartments of local residents.