Touristic Zone in the North of Azerbaijan
NORTH ROUTE: XYZY-SIASAN-DYAVACHI-GUBA-KHACHMAZ-NABRAN-GUSAR XIZI Khyzinsky district is located in the so-called Guba-Khachmaz region, and from all the administrative regions of the republic with a mountainous terrain, the most close to Baku is 70 km. The climate here is warm and temperate, with a low amount of precipitation. The eastern part of the region is the Caspian coast. On the way to Khizi, 10 km from the BAKU-ROSTOV route, an interesting natural phenomenon can be observed: the outcrops of various layers of geological rocks on the surface of the hills form a very peculiar landscape in color. Experts argue that such a geological phenomenon can be observed only in one place on Earth – in the Valley of Death, USA. Here, in the Khizi district, is located one of the most beautiful reserves – “ALTA AGACH”. 90% of its territory is occupied by forests, and a reserve has been established to restore and prevent erosion processes in the southeastern slopes of the Greater Caucasus and to conserve rare species of animals and plants. Here, in the Altai Agach during the reign of the Shirvanshahs, there was one of the caravan sites. And since the “agach” (“tree” – azerb.yaz.) Was once one of the measures of distance (7 km), then in translation this name means “6 agachs”, that is, 42 km, which equals the distance from here To the city of Shamakhy. Once there was an ancient caravan road connecting Shemakha with Derbent. To this day, lovers of hiking are moving from here to MARAZA and SHAMAHA. The hunting reserve Yashma (not far from the city of Sumgait), the area of which is 4 hectares, is also located in the Khyzinsky district. On its territory, it is possible to hunt waterfowl and fishing. THE CITY OF KHIZA is the administrative center of the district, the population is 13,500 people, the distance from Baku is 104 km. This town is the homeland of the famous Azerbaijani writer and playwright Jafar Jabbard, who has done much to develop the national art of cinema. The State Film Studio of Azerbaijan is named after him. Famous figures of Azerbaijani culture – Mikail Mushfig and Jabir Novruz – also came from Khizi. For travelers, tourists and holidaymakers here, not far from the city, a beautiful recreation area “JANNET BAGS” was created. It is located in a mountain forest, on the banks of the Atachai River, very close to the ALTYAGACH reserve. 8 km from Khizi there is another recreation area – “Gyzylgazma”. SIYAZAN Siyazan District is located to the north of the capital of Azerbaijan, it extends along the coast of the Caspian Sea. The climate is semi-desert, dry, the landscape – with fragments of light forests and shrubs. Fauna – wolves, steppe cats, jackals, hares, etc. In the coastal zone there are many species of waterfowl. On the territory of the region there are the rivers GILGILCHAY and ATACHAY. Here, in the early Middle Ages, the second line of the Caspian defensive structures passed (the first is the Derbent defensive works). It is listed in the List of Historical and Cultural Monuments of Azerbaijan, protected by the state as GILGILCHAYSKAYA DEFENSE STRUCTURE and recommended by UNESCO for inclusion in the list of World Heritage Sites in the complex of “CASPIAN DEFENSE STRUCTURES”. Archaeologists have established that the Gilgilchai defensive construction began to be built long ago, even before our era, and it was constantly being built and strengthened. The wall starts right in the sea (the Caspian is prone to long cycles of level fluctuations) and stretches for many kilometers, rising to the mountains, where it ends with the grand watchtower CHYRAG GALA (5th century). To this tower it is worthwhile to rise – except for historical significance, from the top of the mountain opens a marvelous view of the sea and the surrounding mountains. Here, between the sea and the spurs of the Caucasus Mountains is a very convenient passage from Azerbaijan to the north, to other countries. Since ancient times it is called Caspian. On it, invaders broke out into the country – neighboring or alien. They raided Azerbaijan, plundered the ports of Baku, sometimes reaching the deepest regions of the country. Therefore, the wall served for defense and signaling to Absheron (in Baku) and further, across all border regions of ancient Azerbaijan. The scale of the construction and the defensive significance of the wall and fortresses (it also protected the passages to the highway of the Great Silk Road) make it possible to compare it with the Great Wall of China. However, this object has not been restored yet. Near the Chirag Gala tower, there is a resort town GALA ALTA (Under the Tower) with a sanatorium “Chyrag Gala”, on the territory of which beats a mineral spring with curative sulfurous water, especially useful for the treatment of patients suffering from urolithiasis and gallstones . On the way to the sanatorium there are numerous kebabs, cafes and small campings, the vast majority of which only function in the summer. Near the village of ZARAT fragments of another defensive wall – Beshbarmakskaya – were preserved. In the people these ruins are called HYZYRZIND BABA. Not far from the other village of SEDAN – the remains of the fortress of DINAR are preserved. In the region, carpet weaving, carving with inlay, the making of folk musical instruments are developed. The city of Siyazan is located from Baku at a distance of 103 km, the population is 34.5 million people. In Siyazan there is no hotel, so you can stay in a private house or in the sanatorium Chyrag Gala, – away from the city. Lunch in Siyazan is possible in restaurants “Geryush”, “Zyafarian”, “Chyrag Gala”. Since the city is located near the Caspian Sea, in addition to meat and vegetable dishes, this menu includes a large assortment of fish dishes.DEVECHIDEVECHINSKY DISTRICT is located to the north of Baku and its eastern border runs along the Caspian coast. The name of the district comes from the word “camel driver”, obviously, it was connected with the development of caravan routes. In the old days, the inhabitants of this region kept camels, people from neighboring regions came to local bazaars – and not only to buy camels, but also birds, cattle, dairy products, honey, wool (camel and sheep), carpets. And also to join the caravan or hire your own driver with a camel. On the territory of Devechi district, 12 km from the sea coast, there is a hunting farm of the AGZY BIR with an area of 1180 hectares. – it is possible to hunt waterfowl, otter and fishery. On the territory of Agzy Bir there are three lakes connected to each other with access to the sea. There are also conditions for the reception of hunters – small houses, boats. There are a lot of forests in the district (21500 hectares), in which there are bears, foxes, wolves, jackals, wild boars, gazelle. Of birds (including waterfowl) – turach, partridge, geese, ducks, swans, cormorants, kachkaldaks. The terrain is very diverse, – plains, foothills, rocks, mountains. Very popular with locals and tourists is the place – KECHI GAYA – where there is a river between the rocks and mineral springs with a high sulfur content. Historical and archaeological monuments of the area are the ruins of the famous ancient settlement of Shabran (5th-18th centuries) near the village of Shakhnazarli. Shabran was one of the largest trade and craft centers of medieval Azerbaijan. Silk production, pottery and glass-blowing art were particularly highly developed here. Archaeological excavations conducted in the 80s of the 20th century revealed a large number of pottery – local and from other countries, which testifies to established trade ties with many countries of the East. During the excavation, fragments of a water pipe constructed in the XIV century were found, which supplied the city with drinking water from a spring located 10 km from the city. In the village of GYNDOB there is an ancient settlement GULISTANII IREM (XVIII – XIX centuries). In the Devechi region, numerous archaeological sites dating from 3-2 thousand BC were discovered. With materials found during the excavation, you can see in the Historical and Local History Museum of Devechi.DEVECHI The town of Devochi is the administrative center of the district, located 122 km from Baku. The population is 47,200 people. Local types of carpets – “PIRABEDIL” and “HERAT PIRABEDIL” – which, according to the experts classification, are part of the so-called Guba Carpet School – are original, original and in demand by carpet handicrafts lovers. GUBA GUBA DISTRICT is one of the most developed agricultural regions of Azerbaijan – vegetables and fruits from here come to the markets of the capital, to processing the local canning industry, are export products. Despite the fact that many kinds of various fruits and vegetables are grown here, any Azerbaijani Guba is associated, above all, with apple orchards. Sellers at markets in Baku, praising the product, be sure to call their apples “Guba” … The rich flora of the Guba region also presents a wide range of medicinal plants: hawthorn, juniper, balsam, nightshade, valerian, willow, plantain, marshmallow, letter, ephedra, lazurnik , A doucheur and others. In the vicinity of Guba, such picturesque places of nature as GESHRESH, BALBULAG, TENGGEALTY gorge depths from 400 to 600 meters are especially popular and visited. The famous AFHURJIN waterfall on the Velvelichai river is listed in the “Nature Monuments of Azerbaijan” and is protected by the state. There are other waterfalls, attracting the attention of tourists and travelers with its unusual and unique. If you pass the picturesque corners of nature hiking trails, climbing higher into the mountains, tall trees are replaced by shrubs, and still higher in the Hashichay river, in a valley of the rocks are thermal springs. Once upon a time, folk craftsmen right in the rock, three large grooves were cut down – original baths, covered with stone walls. In them you can soak in the warm, healing water of hydrogen sulfide sources. Experts say that the natural stone bed enhances the healing effect of the source water.Once upon a time these places were visited by the French writer Alexander Dumas in his trip to Azerbaijan. Stopping by the halt near the road, he was invited to the fire by the Guba people, who also decided to rest and refresh themselves. Dumas was shocked by the art with which the Guba people separated the lamb and the taste of the kebab (shish kebab) to which they treated him … And the greatest traveler of our time, the Norwegian scientist Thor Heyerdahl also visited Guba during his visit to Azerbaijan, because he believed that the “aces “, Mentioned in the epic” Edda “, and there are the most ancient ancestors of Azerbaijanis, who came to the north of Europe during the great migration of peoples. And here, in the Guba region, 65 km from Guba, there is an alpine (2500 m above sea level) village Khinalig, whose population is a unique, separate ethnographic group. Hynalygtsy have their own archaic language, unlike any of the modern languages of the world. This language is well preserved, although the Khinalig speak Azerbaijani. The Khinalig phenomenon is not only one of the great ethnographic mysteries of the history of Azerbaijan, but also history in general. Near Khynalyg there is a sanctuary (IX century), where there is a natural output of fire on the surface of the earth. Therefore, in the people this place was called Ateshgah – the Temple of Fire. In the village of BUDUG, where an original ethnic group with its own rare language also lives, the ancient structure DAKHMA, the “tower of silence” of the Zoroastrian period, was preserved, these towers were designed for the Zoroastrian burial rite. The city of Huba is located on the banks of the Kudial-tea river and the northeastern slopes of Shahdag mountain of the Greater Caucasus. This is the administrative center of the Guba district. The population is 140,000 people, distance from Baku is 168 km, height above sea level is 600 m. You can learn about the history of the city and the Guba khanate, famous people who have made this land famous in the local historical museum. There is also the house-museum of A. Bakikhanov – the famous public figure, writer and educator of Azerbaijan. One of his books – “Gulistani Irem” – is devoted to the history of the country, and is, in fact, the first historical work on the history of Azerbaijan. There is also a center of carpet weaving in Guba, as this zone became famous for its carpets of the type “CHICHI”, “CHIRCH,” “GYMYL”, “JIMI”, “ERFI”, which are an ornament of many museums and private collections of the world. The city has preserved such historical monuments as the SAKINE HANUM mosque, JUMA mosque, the mausoleum of the XVI century, the ancient oriental baths. In the first half of the 18th century, the territories of the present Guba district, as well as modern Devechi, Husar, Khachmaz, Khizi and Siyazan districts were united in the Guba khanate. At first Khudat was the center of this Khanate, but soon the Gubin Khan HUSSEIN ALI made the capital of his khanate Guba and moved his residence there. The most famous ruler of the Guba khanate, Fatali Khan, always tried to unite the disunited khanates of Azerbaijan under his command. He subordinated his influence to the entire north-eastern Azerbaijan from Derbent to Lankaran. At that time, Jews were invited to settle in Guba, along the left bank of the Kudial-Chay. This settlement was called JEWISH SLOBODA, and since 1926 – RED SLOBODA. From the north, the Guba khanate was always threatened by the Dagestan khans. When Russia also had geopolitical interests in the Caucasus and the Transcaucasus, it was much more difficult to keep independent rule and protect the borders of the Guba khanate. At the beginning of the XIX century (1813) the Guba Khanate became part of the Russian Empire. Guba is a small city, but the present territory of the Guba region, which occupies the northeastern slopes of the Greater Caucasus, is very picturesque, and you can plunge into its beauty as soon as you leave the city. Neither Azerbaijani nor foreign tourists ever bypass this region with their attention. And the Baku people, especially if they come to Guba to rest on their car, often go from Guba and to the seashore of YALAMA – in a recreation zone, located relatively near the Guba. Conversely, holidaymakers in Yalama (NABRAN) sometimes make a “jerk” to Guba to combine the pleasures of rest on the shore of the Caspian Sea with pleasure from the forest foothills of Guba, numerous springs and picturesque nature. Gubinsky district is one of the most beautiful in the country. And given its proximity to the capital, the neighborhood of the forest zone with the Caspian coast, numerous tourist centers and recreation areas, this area is of great importance as a recreational and balneological zone of the country. In Guba you can stay at the hotel “SHAHDAG”, as well as in cottages and a hotel of the recently built Olympic complex, which is equipped with a covered swimming pool (50 m long), an open-air stadium, a covered stadium for team sports, a gym, Tennis and minifootball “LONG FOREST” RECREATION AREA Here you will find 10 furnished wooden chalets (air conditioning, fireplace); A restaurant with a national, Indian and European cuisine; Bar, conference room for business meetings and seminars; Sauna and wet steam room, exercise machines, swimming pool. For sports: mountain bikes, billiards, darts, table tennis, etc. Horseback riding, excursions to historical monuments. In Guba also there are Recreation areas: “GUBA”, “GIANT BAGS”, “MINARET”. You can have lunch in numerous kyababnyh along the route Baku-Guba, as well as in the forest GESHRESH, 7-9 km from Guba, on the bank of the river GUIDIAL-TEA. Here, along the road there are many cafes, restaurants and various recreation areas, where you can also eat well. XACHMAZ KHACHMAZ DISTRICT occupies part of the Samur-Devechi lowland and is located in the north-east of Azerbaijan. From the north it borders on Russia. On its territory are the main roads and the railway (Baku-Moscow). The climate in this region is moderately warm semi-deserts and dry steppes. Nevertheless, more than 20 hectares of the territory is covered with forests, several rivers flow, there are three artificial lakes, many sources of spring water, including thermal and mineral water. Here, on the border with Dagestan, there used to be a path that the conquerors-the Scythians, Alans, Huns, went by. It was for this purpose that the Caspian defensive structures were built, – fortified walls with towers, reaching the territory of the current Khachmaz district. One of the ancient cities-fortresses – HUDAT (“God’s gift”) became in the beginning of the XVIII century the capital of the Guba khanate. Here, near the city of Khudat, there is a great resource of groundwater, which is drinking water. From the local village SHALLAR in 1914, a water pipeline was installed in Baku. Traces of Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements were found throughout the area. Toponym “Khachmaz” scholars associated with the alien tribes of the Huns – Khachmata or Khachmaty, which were later assimilated by the local population. It is interesting that from the territory of Khachmaz district one of these tribes moved to Oguz region, and there they also founded the homonymous village, and later the fortress KHACHMAZ. Throughout the region, about 60 monuments of history and culture have been preserved, but archaeologists believe that they should be much larger, since this region has been densely populated since ancient times. Near the villages MOLLABYURHAN, HYULOVLU, GARADZHIK, HASANGALA – settlements and barrows of the Bronze Age were discovered; Near the villages of JANAHYR and BOSTANCHI – medieval settlements. In the village SHIHLAR – mosque Sheikh Yusuf (XV century.), Which refers to the early period of the appearance of architectural mausoleum complexes, widely used later – in the XVI – XVII centuries. In the villages of MORUG BOTH, TAGAR OBA, Uzun Baja, the mosques of the XIX century were preserved, in the village of Garagurtlu MOSQUET and MEDRESE (15th century). KHACHMAZ CITY is the administrative center of Khachmaz district, distance from Baku is 157 km, population – 148400 people. Since traditional carpets are the most developed carpet weaving, a special faculty is organized in the local Lyceum. It often comes to the guests of the city to see how the clever fingers of young craftsmen weave magic carpet patterns, the pattern of which has been passed on for hundreds of years, from generation to generation. You can stop in Khachmaz at the hotel “KHACHMAZ” (tel.3-40-40). On the territory of Khachmaz district there is the second largest and most comfortable recreation area on the Caspian coast, which stretches along the entire coast of the sea from the village of Mukhtadyr to the settlement of Nabran and beyond. There are a lot of tourist centers and boarding houses in which you can stay. NABRAN Nabran is the largest creative region in the KHACHMAZ DISTRICT, on the coast of the Caspian Sea. This area is interesting because after the edge of the sandy beach the forest starts immediately, in which various camp sites, camps, boarding houses, rest homes are located. Conditions in them are very different – from comfortable luxury hotels, comfortable cottages for a small number of people to tent camps. HOLIDAY COMPLEX “GREEN VILLE” Located in the forest, on the shore of the Caspian Sea. There are 18 comfortable cottages, each with 4 separate rooms. Each cottage can accommodate from 2 to 12 people. Restaurants, conference room, bars, swimming pools for adults and children, playground, tennis court, volleyball, basketball, football pitches, billiards, table tennis, badminton – everything is there for you to have a great rest. “PALMA” HOLIDAY CAMP 30 comfortable cottages (air conditioning, TV, bar, telephone), swimming pool for adults and children, sports grounds, conference hall, restaurant, bar. AREA OF RECREATION “LOTUS” Located in the forest, near the beach. The territory of the zone is 1.2 hectares. There are 14 cottages with all amenities (telephone, TV, refrigerator). Restaurant (buffet), disco, banquet hall. RECREATION AREA “ATLANT” It is located in the forest, on the coast of the Caspian Sea. 2 and 3-room comfortable cottages, restaurant, discotheque, bar, healing springs, swimming pools, sports grounds, excursions by bus, jeep or on foot. For children – boating and catamarans. GUSAR The population of the district is 183500 people; The regional center, the city of Gusar – 15800 people.GUSAR DISTRICT borders on Dagestan and is located in the north-east of Azerbaijan, 35 km from the railway station Khudat. The name of the district – “Gusar” – descends toponymically to the self-designation of the tribe “Hissar”, once here inhabited, disappeared as a result of historical ethnogenesis. In this area, mainly representatives of Lezghian nationality live. Landscapes of this region are alternating mountains and valleys covered with forests. This is dominated by broad-leaved trees – hornbeam, oak, beech. In the tugai forests of river floodplains grow loquat, sumac, hawthorn, wild rose, wild fruit trees, gooseberries, wild grapes, many medicinal plants. There is also beech forest “ALISTAN BABA” (7 hectares), taken under the protection of the state. Equally rich is the fauna of the Hussar region – wolves, bears, wild boars, mountain goats, eagles, owls … With the aim of preserving and restoring the number of hunting and commercial species of fauna and its habitats, the Gusar (area of 15 thousand hectares) .In the mountain canyons you can admire the beautiful waterfalls, the most popular of which are LAZA and SHAHNABAZ – attract many tourists and amateurs of the wild nature of the Caucasus. Mountains and peaks of the Gusar region attract mountain climbers and mountaineers, and local waterfalls have become the site of winter ice-climbing competitions in recent years. From the village of LAZA you can walk to the village of Khinalig located in the Gubinsky district – this route has recently become very popular with hikers. If you move ecotourism route from the city of Gusar in the direction of the Laza waterfall, you can stay in the village of Anig, near which the ruins of fortress walls of the 13th century, an ancient mosque were preserved, and near the village of LAZA you can stop at the recreation center SUVAR. If you are heading from Gusar to the village of SUDUG (75 km), located on the slope of Shakhdag mountain, in the village of Khazra you can see the mausoleum of Shaykh Junode (16th century) – the grandfather of Shah Ismail Khatai, the founder of Azerbaijan State Sefevid. This land, like the whole land of Azerbaijan, keeps the evidence of ancient culture and people’s life – ancient mausoleums, mosques, remains of ancient settlements and fortresses have been preserved in the villages of Khazra, Khil, Balagusar, Anig, Yasab, Keine Khudat, Gunduz Gala. GUSAR CITY is the administrative center of the Gusar district. The distance from Baku is 183 km. This city was once visited by the great Russian poet M.Lermontov, that is why the museum bearing his name was founded here. Among the folk handicrafts, carpet weaving is most developed – especially the lintless carpet SUKH, which is weaved both at home and in the shop located in the center of the city. In the same carpet shop the largest loom in the republic is installed, for which up to 10 people can work simultaneously. You can stop here in the recreation areas GARABULAG, GAIBULAG, SUVAR. There you can find not only a night’s lodging, but also a good lunch.