Touristic Zone in Naxchivan
NACHICHEVAN AUTONOMOUS REPUBLIC
To the south-west of Azerbaijan is the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (NAR). It is separated from Azerbaijan by a narrow strip of another’s state, which became possible once as a result of a clash of imperial interests of Russia and Persia. It is located on the southern slopes of the Daralayaz and southwestern slopes of the Zangezur Mountains. This mountainous area – more than 30% of the territory of the Autonomous Republic is located at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level. The highest mountains of the region are KAPUDZHUK (3904 m) and ILANDAG (2385). The Autonomous Republic is rich in deposits of marble, rock salt, lime, gypsum, unique mineral waters: SIRAB, BADAMLA, VAYHIR, NAGADZHYR, GYZYLJIRE. There are many underground waters in general, therefore, the art of building KYAGRIZES – unique underground tunnels for water – has historically reached a high level in the region. In the kyagrizes from the surface of the earth lead the steps, there are also such, the water from which is simply brought to the surface (the semblance of a modern water pipe). Masters for the construction of kyagriz (kyan-kans) have kept their art to this day. The climate in the republic is sharply continental, the temperature ranges from +43 in summer and -30 g. In winter. Humidity is low. Flora – beech, oriental oak, walnut, willow, maple, wild pear, many medicinal plants. Fauna – bears, wild boars, foxes, hares, wolves, stone martens, bezoar goats, Asian moufflons; Birds – Caspian snowcock, Alpine devil, mountain swallow, stone partridge. Along the state border with Iran and TURKEY, the ARAZ river flows, in addition, there are about 40 other small and medium rivers (ORDUBADCHAY, ALINJACHAY, GILYANCHAI, NAKHCHIVANCHAY, ARPACHAY, etc.). There is a beautiful lake BATABAT with the so-called “floating islands”, there is an artificial lake, the waters of which are used for irrigation of the lands of the Babek and Djulfa regions – it is located at an altitude of 1500 m, near the village of GAZANCHY. Throughout the region, a large number of ruins of ancient cities, towers, fortresses, mausoleums have been preserved. This region has always been attractive to capture both because of its strategic position and natural resources. CITY Nakhchivan is the capital of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. Located on the right bank of the river Nakhchivancha, at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level. The distance from Baku is 560 km. The population is 364 500 people. It is one of the oldest, largest cities of Azerbaijan and the ancient East. The history of the city is lost in the depths of millennia: archaeologists discovered items of material culture dating from 2-1 thousand BC. E. Local residents connect the history of settlements on the site of Nakhchivan with the legend of the biblical patriarch Noah, who escaped after the Great Flood. It is believed that Noah’s ark before to approach the mountain, three times faced with the peaks of the Lesser Caucasus, one of which even has split from the blow (Mountain Agrydag, Balaagry, Ilandag, Alangez, Gapydzhik). Local residents believe that Noah after the flood lived and died here. Until recently, the elders (agsakkals) were alive, who assured them that they knew the place of the grave of Noah. This story is so popular among the people that the famous artist BEHRUZ KENGERLY drew a picture, which is called – “Noah’s Grave”. The earliest written source that came down to us, in which Nakhchivan is mentioned, is the works of Ptolemy (II century). He calls Nakhchivan Nahsuanoy. In medieval Arab sources, the city is called “Nieszawa”, and in the works of such renowned authors as Muhammed Nakhchivan Hamdullah Qazvini, Katib Çelebi, Evliya Çelebi and others. Nakhchivan is respectfully called NAHSH-e-Jahan ( “Ornament of the World”). The city is located at the crossroads of ancient trade routes, and entered once part of one of the ancient states of Azerbaijan – Atropatena (IV -. III centuries BC era.). In the era of the early Middle Ages, Nakhchivan’s ties with the countries of Asia Minor, the Middle East and Transcaucasia became particularly intense. The wealth of the city and its geopolitical position caused frequent raids from neighboring states, as a result of which it was repeatedly destroyed. But Nakhchivan invariably rebuilt and became even more beautiful. For example, in the middle of I in AD. city ravaged and destroyed the Byzantine emperor Heraclius 2, it is often devastated Mongol raids, he has also been a constant cause of contention between Byzantium and the Arab Caliphate. In all times Nakhchivan was one of the main cities of the state formations – the ruling dynasties Sajids, Salaris, capital of the state of Azerbaijani Atabeks Eldegizidov … In XII century in Nakhchivan lived up to 200 thousand people, trade was developed, the city was famous for its masters and craftsmen: weavers, potters, jewelers, glass blowers. But Nakhchivan was especially famous for its builders, – a famous school of Nakhchivan architecture was founded here, and construction work took on a large scale. In the Middle Ages, according to the admired by the beauty of the city of travelers, the famous ensemble of the palace of the Eldegisids, the cathedral mosque, the large madrasah that became the center of Muslim education, state buildings, palaces of the aristocracy were erected here. Written sources speak of “20 thousand houses, 70 religious buildings, 20 caravan-sheds, 7 baths, several bazaars.” French travelers Pierre Chardin and Dubois de Montper, Englishman Porter noted that this is a magnificent city with well-preserved architectural monuments of antiquity. Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi admired the local baths, in the pools of which every day throwing baskets of pink petals. In the 15th – 16th centuries, Nakhchivan was part of the Azerbaijani states Garagoyunlu, Aggoyunlu, then Sefevid. In the XVII century, he became part of the Chukhursaad Beagleback, which was ruled by the leaders of the militant Turkic tribe KENGERLY. In the XVIII century there was formed Nakhchivan khanate. In 1828, according to the TURKMENCHAYSKY CONTRACT, the Khanate withdrew to Russia, and later became the center of the same-named Russian county. In 1924 the city became the capital of the Nakhchivan ASSR. This ancient city has an original culture, and its integral part was the famous local cuisine. Only here, for example, they know the secret of cooking “Alan” – specially dried peaches stuffed with ground nuts and sugar; Special eggs with honey “balygaynag”, etc. Land Nakhchivan – birthplace of the great architect of the XII century Ajami ibn Abubakr Nakhchevani who built the mausoleum Yusuf ibn KUSEIRA (Gumbez Atababa), Mausoleum of Momina Khatun, a portal with minarets Juma mosque. It is believed that by creating the Momine-mausoleum Momine-Hatun, Ajami created the image of the era. Not for nothing because the mausoleum is decorated with an inscription: “We’re leaving, the world remains, we will die – REMAIN MEMORY”. Geometric and epigraphic patterns decorating the mausoleum are made with a jeweler’s precision: it looks like a shining turquoise – a favorite gemstone East. Here he was born the famous scientist, statesman, writer, linguist, who created the first Persian-Azerbaijani Dictionary (4 tys.slov) – Hindushah BIN ABDULLAH BIN Sanjar Nakhchivani (XIII – XIV centuries.). His son, MUKHAMMED NAKHCHIVANI, was a well-known statesman in the field of finance, who wrote a book on taxation (XIII-XIV centuries). Known figures of Azerbaijan born in Nakhchivan, were also KELBALI Khan Nakhchivani his son HUSEYN Khan Nakhchivani known warlord; JAMSHID NAKHCHIVANSKY – a prominent figure of the twentieth century; The classic writer JALIL MAMEDKULI-ZADE; Poet-romanticist and playwright HUSSEIN JAVID, who became a victim of Stalin’s repressions; Artist BEHRUZ KENGERLY. Nakhchivan is the homeland of the national leader of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev.Much attention is paid to science and education in modern Nakhchivan. Here there is a university, a branch of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Akademgorodok was built. Great attention is paid to schools – old ones are being repaired, new ones are being built, – for example, a large, G.Aliyeva. There is a Palace of Culture, a drama theater, a puppet theater. A well-equipped sports Olympic complex is built. Museums: carpet, literary, historical. There is also a museum house and the mausoleum of writer-playwright Huseyn Javid. There are a lot of historical monuments in the city: the architectural complex IMAMZADE, JUMA-MOSQUET, the mosque “ZYAVYIA”, the mosque “PIRGYAMISH”, “KHAN EVI”, the bath “ISMAIL KHANA”, the mausoleum of YUSUFA Ibn Kuseyir, the mausoleum MOMINE-HATUN. Ordubad ORDUBAD DISTRICT borders on Armenia in the north and east, in the south – with the Islamic Republic of Iran. It is located in the eastern part of NAR. The climate is contrasting – cold winter, hot summer. Here, rich fauna and flora, amazingly clean air, lots of medicinal plants and fruits. Many historical monuments of the Bronze Age: stone figures of sheep, the remains of ancient settlements 2-1 thousand BC. In the village of SABIR, the ruins of the ancient city of GILYAN near the village of Aza, the medieval buildings in the villages of KILIT, VELAVER, AILIS, AZA, KOTAM, BILEV, VANAND; The ruins of the ancient city of ANABAD, the tower of Shakhtakhty near the village of ANDDEMIDZH, the mosque of the XIX century, the mausoleum of the XIV century in the village of DER, the bridge of 1826 near the village of AZA, the ruins of the bathhouse of the XIV century in the village of DER and many other monuments. At 60 km south of Ordubad on Mount Gyamigaya unique petroglyphs of 3-2 thousand BC have been preserved. There are thousands of drawings depicting people, scenes of everyday life, hunting, real and fantastic animals. CITY ORDUBAD is the administrative center of the Ordubad district. It is the second largest city of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The city is known since the XII century, located at an altitude of 850 m above sea level. Because of its antiquity, a large number of historical monuments, almost uninhabited by new buildings of external appearance, the surviving way of life of inhabitants, ORDUBAD is declared the State Historical and Architectural Reserve. Its monuments are: JUMA-MOSQUE with unique arched niches of the facade, DILBERUS-MOSQUE, AFGAN tower and ejvans of the XVIII century, a lot of ancient chashma (built at the springs), a covered shopping complex GEYSARIA with round domes (XIX – XX centuries), a glacier and Mosques XVIII – in, two-story madrassas and much more. Ordubad must be seen to understand how beautiful this small city, which preserved the genuine fragrance of antiquity. Incredibly huge, old plane trees, having in a girth of almost 8 meters, create a “roof”, under which people gather for a leisurely conversation; Unique mosques, ovdans, kyagrizy – everything here has its own unique features. It is a city in which modern people live, preserved the beauty of the ancient national way of life. There is a Historical and Local History Museum with a rich exposition, a theater, a house museum of the writer ORDUBADI, the founder of the historical and romantic genre in Azerbaijani literature. The restoration of the house where the academician YUSUF MAMEDALIEV was born is one of the first presidents of the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, the founder of Azerbaijan petrochemistry, a bright, creative personality, the organizer of science, thanks to whose activities Azerbaijan made an invaluable contribution to the defeat of the Nazi invaders during the Second World War. You can stay in Ordubad in the homes of local residents. Julfa Julfa DISTRICT is located to the east of the city of Nakhchivan, in summer it is dry and hot, in winter it is very cold. Annual precipitation is about 220-600 mm. Here flows the rivers ALINJA, GARDAR, and also ARAZ (along the border with Iran). Very beautiful and peculiar mountains along the road to Djulfa – the geological factor (the composition of rocks, their age, etc.) affected the appearance – the mountains look like huge, domed fantastic buildings. In the mountains of Djulfa there are forest tracts, in which grow beech, hornbeam, oak; The fauna is represented by wolves, foxes, hares. On the banks of the ARAZ River, the ruins of ancient buildings have been preserved. It is a 13th-century caravanserai, one of the largest in the territory of Azerbaijan. The remains of the bridge of the XIV century, which was built by the decree of the Nakhchivan Khan HAKIMA ZIYA AD-DINA at the beginning of the XIV century. Near the village of DZHUGA – a small mausoleum of GYULISTAN (XIII c.), And near the village of DER – there are three ancient mausoleums, of which the tower mausoleum is most preserved (XV c). Fortress ALINJA (XII – XIII centuries.) And many other monuments and ancient ruins.In the district there are many springs and springs (about forty). One of them, located on the slopes of the DARIADAG mountain, daily yields about 500,000 liters of highly mineralized water. THE CITY OF JULF is located on the bank of the ARAZ river, on the border with Iran. Almost symmetrical to the Azerbaijani Julfa, on the opposite shore of the Araz is an Iranian city, also called JULFA. Earlier here was an ancient caravan route from Persia to Shirvan, Georgia, Dagestan. Now there is a border checkpoint. You can stop here at the hotel “Araz” at the railway station. There is also a restaurant. You can also dine at the restaurant “Gulistan” and the cafe “Eldar”. Babek BABEK DISTRICT in the north of the republic borders on Armenia, in the south – with Iran. The north and south-east of this territory have a mountainous terrain, the south and the south-west – the lowland. The highest mountain peaks are KECHALTEPE (2740 m), GARAGUSH (2617 m), BUZGOV (2470 m). In the territory of the region there are springs of mineral water SIRAB, HAHAB, VAYHYR, deposits of rock salt. Here flows the river Nakhchivancha and its tributary DZHACHRICHAY, there are reservoirs of ARAZ, NEKHRAM, UZUNOB, SIRAB. There are no forests here, wine growing, grain growing, melon growing and cattle breeding are developed. On the territory of the district there are well-known archeological monuments GYULTYAPY and GULTYAP-2, ancient ruins of ABASABAD, VAYHYR, AZNABYURT. CITY Babek – the administrative center of the district. Until 1978, it was called TAZAKEND. SHAHBUS SHAHBUZ DISTRICT is located in the north of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. This is a mountainous area. The highest points are the mountains SALVATLA (3160 m), KECHALDAG (3115 m), the pass BIKYANYAK mountain pass passes. Here, as well as throughout the territory of the republic, there are many underground waters, including mineral ones: BADAMLA, BATABAT, KARVANSARA, BICHYANYAK. There are deposits of sulfur, building materials, peat. The rivers Nakhchivancha and its tributaries KUKYU, SHAKHBUZ, SALVARTS flow. Lakes – GANLYGEL, BATABAT. In the mountains there are woodlands. SHAHBUZ CITY is the administrative center of the district. In the vicinity of the city an interesting monument was discovered, which was popularly called “Farhad’s House” – after the hero of Nizami’s poem “Farhad and Shirin”. In fact, this is an ancient man’s place, which is not quite the usual view: in the stone wall of the mountain four rooms with a “veranda” have been cut down. Archeologists also found the ruins of the fortress “Shahpur”, bearing the name of an ancient ruler. It is believed that this name eventually transformed into the word “Shahbuz”. In the village of GARABAGLAR there is the famous mausoleum “GARABAGLAR”. This village, overgrown with gardens, with ancient but active kyagrizi, is located at the foot of the mountains of the Zangezur mountain range. There is also a fortification system with towers and water supply, which is evidence of the ancient origin of this settlement. There is a suggestion that the mention in the 17th century manuscript of “the city of Garabaglar, which has 10 thousand houses, 70 mosques, of which 40 – with minarets” refers to the present village. SHAHBUZ CITY is the administrative center of the district. You can stop in the homes of local residents. Near the plant for bottling mineral water “Badamly” built Recreation Area “BADAMLI” (at an altitude of 1400 m). SHARUR SHARUR DISTRICT is in the west of the republic, in the south this region borders on Iran. The north and east of the territory have a mountainous terrain, here lies the DARALAJAZ mountain system. The highest mountain is GALYNGAYA (2775 m). The climate is semi-arid, arid, but fairly even: winter temperatures rarely drop below +3 degrees, in summer it does not exceed +26 degrees. The rivers flowing here are tributaries of the ARAZ river (ARPACHAY and others). The Arpachay water is used in irrigation, for this Arpachay reservoir is built here. Local fauna – mouflons, wolves, bezoar goats, foxes, wild boars, hares. Historical monuments, of which there are many, are represented by such objects as the ancient settlements of the Bronze Age along the banks of the Araz and Arpachay, stone and obsidian guns of the Mouster Age were found in the GAZMA cave, samples of artfully painted painted ceramic ware were found in the settlement of Shakhtakhty. Archaeological excavations near the villages of Arbatan, Vermyaziyar, Garagasanli, Babeki, Kosadjan, showed that ancient settlements were located here, about which the memory was preserved (Kliuklyar, Kyokhnya, Arbatan, Kyokhnyakand, Kultepe). Many household utensils and painted pottery were found here. THE CITY OF SHARUR is the administrative center of the Sharur region. The city is new, it grew during the construction of the railway. There are two parks here, there is a museum, a stadium, a mosque, a martyrdom memorial, a cinema. Here, on the other side of the railway, the old city, with baths, a bazaar, mosques, has been preserved. You can stop here in the homes of local residents. KENGERLI KENGERLIN DISTRICT is located between the Babek district and Sharur. The southern part of the region borders on Iran, the northern part – with Armenia. The area has a mountainous terrain, it is located on the DARALAJAZ NAGORA. The climate, like almost everywhere in the autonomous republic, is sharply continental – very hot in summer and cold in winter. On the territory of the region there flows the ARAZ river, along which the border of Azerbaijan with Iran runs. The mountainous terrain, the climate and the absence of small rivers determined the local vegetation, which is represented mainly by semi-desert and mountain species (bushes, grasses, rare trees). This is an agricultural area where they cultivate tobacco, grapes, cereals, vegetables and melons. Here, as elsewhere in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, a large number of ancient monuments, indicating that the population of the Territory is already in archaic times: Chylhangala mounds, cave Gazma and ancient settlements Galadzhig, GOVURGALA, DAMLAMA, GULAMLYTEPE, BALATEPE. Survived and later monuments – Jami Mosque (XVIII century) in the village of Hawk, a mosque and a bath in the village Shahtakhty etc. Givrag village (XVIII c.) (XIX c.) -. The administrative center of the new district formed only in the 2004th Year. Givrag located on the highway Nakhchivan-Sharur, 30 km from the capital of the region – Nakhchivan. From the village to the river Araz – 6 km. In connection with the recent obtaining the status of an administrative center of the district, Givrag village does not yet have the infrastructure for the adoption of tourists. But here you can stay in the homes of local residents, who will provide a room or a house.