Touristic Zones in Karabakh
ANCIENT KARABAKH is the heart of Azerbaijan, the land that gave the country a lot of talented people. It is not only a unique nature, landscapes included in the list of natural monuments of the country, it is also a bright pleiad of talents – poets, writers, musicians, khanende (masters of the national musical direction – MUGAM). Karabakh is the cradle of Azerbaijani music. The nature and resources of this ancient land leave no one indifferent. Probably, therefore, this beautiful land is now in occupation … BARDA BARDINSKIY DISTRICT is located in the center of the Karabakh plain, in the north-western part of the Kura-Araz lowland, on the bank of the river TERTERCHAY. Here also the Khachin River flows, the Kura River flows along the border of the region, a large Upper Qarabag canal was built. Along the Barda-Terter road there are two beautiful lakes, another lake (Agaly) is located near Barda. The forests of the district occupy 6,856 square meters, there are many relict trees, oak, hornbeam, garagach, walnut, and platan grow. The local fauna is represented by a wolf, a fox, a jackal, a wild boar, a hare, a pheasant, a goose, a turtle, etc. Hunting and fishing are possible. Natural conditions allowed to grow melon crops, engage in cotton growing, growing cereals. This area before the collapse of the Soviet Union was the All-Union health resort, a popular resort, since the local land is rich in curative mineral springs. The most famous are ISTISU, which is located three kilometers from the city of Barda, as well as a source near the village of Muganli. CITY OF BARD. The distance from Baku is 314 km. Bardu, located in the western part of Azerbaijan, in Arabic written sources (IBN HOVAL) was called “MOTHER OF ARRAN CITIES”. Once the city was one of the key stages of the Great Silk Road. It was known to the surrounding people 2 thousand years ago, and there was even a legend that Alexander the Great founded Bardu, this legend was mentioned in his works by such ancient authors as Balazuri and Kazvini. Since VI century AD. Barda became the capital of Caucasian Albania. Archaeological expeditions discovered the ruins of an ancient city not far from the modern Barda. A wealth of material was found, indicating a high level of urban culture, trade, and crafts: jewelry, blacksmith, pottery; Sericulture, woodworking, carpet weaving. It was a city with developed infrastructure: archaeologists discovered underground water communications, sewerage, for which ceramic pipes were used. In construction, red brick was used, the squares of the ancient city were paved. Coins were minted at the mint. The finds attest to the intensive ties of the city with the adjacent cities of Azerbaijan and the entire Middle East, and items of material culture covering the period from the 2nd millennium BC were found. Until the late Middle Ages. Until now, many architectural monuments have survived. These are the remains of the famous bridge (VII – XI centuries) through Terter; Mausoleums: “AHSADAN BABA”, “GYULOGLOULAR” (the well-known scientist Bakhman Mirza Gajar is buried here) works of the master AHMEDA, son Ayyub al-Hafiz; “IMAMZADE”, in which, according to scientists, Sheikh IBRAMIM is buried. An adobe fortress of square form has survived. As the capital of the Albanian state, the Barda in 552 became the religious center of the Albanian Christian Church. Christianity in the Caucasian Albania was brought by Syrian missionaries. However, starting from the first half of the 7th century, the Bard turns into an arena of wars between Khazars and Arabs. During the reign of the Caliph MUAVIA (661-680), the Barda is being restored, fortress walls are being built around the city. Here settled the Arab garrison, as an outpost against the attack of the Khazars. At this time the population of Barda was 100 thousand people – this is a big figure for the city of that time. Therefore, the Arab author of Mugadasi called Barda “Baghdad of this region”. After the collapse of the caliphate and almost to the end of the X century Barda was part of the state of SALARIDOV. In the history of Barda an interesting case is fixed. In the 944th year on ships on the Kura rose Vikings, who from the Kiev principality “walked” through all the cities and towns, plundering everything that is possible. If you believe the records, the Viking squad was large enough, from 30 to 50 thousand people. They managed to take Barda for a while. But after a few months they began to die of incomprehensible diseases, left the city without a fight and left. Most of all, the Bard suffered from the Mongol invasions. Strongly destroyed it was during the invasion of TIMUR (XV century). And after the ruin of the city by the Iranian Shah Nadir in 1736, Barda could not recover. The city fell into decay, and became a small settlement in the Karabakh Khanate (late 18th century).Previously, Barda consisted of a clearly designated city center – SHAHRISTAN, surrounded by a fortification wall, and Rabat, consisting of quarters of craftsmen, artisans and merchants. Here were the quarters of blacksmiths (now there is the village of Gara Demirchilar), weavers, potters, stonemasons, woodcarvers, stone, masters of tanneries. Fine fabrics, weapons, ceramic and glassware, jewelry made of simple and precious metals were created. Famous carpets of the KARABAKH GROUP (pile and lint-free), created by Azerbaijani craftsmen, were mostly “native” from Barda. It was a real City of Masters, which the great Azerbaijani poet NIZAMI GANJEVI sang in his poem “ISKANDER-NAME”. The ancient Bard of GAZI, MAHIATDIN BARDINSKY, famous politician of the 14th century, became famous; Progressive jurist and scientist MUHAMMED IBN ABDULLA ABUBEKR BARDINSKY (died in 961th year), known to many eminent scientists of the East, wrote the book “ANSWER FROM THE DISAGREE” (on the basics of Muslim law). His works testify to the democratic, progressive orientation of the scientist. AGDAM AGDAM DISTRICT. Many architectural monuments of antiquity have been preserved on its territory. This is the mausoleum of Khanoglian (XVII century), Karavansaray (XVIII century) in the village of Shakhbulag, a mosque (XVII century), a palace and the mausoleum of Panahali Khan; Mausoleum “GUTLU MUSAOGLY” (XIV century) in the village of KHACHYNTYURBETLY, two mausoleums and a mosque in the village of PAPRAVEND, a cave temple carved on the northern slope of the BOSDAG mountain of the Christian period of the Caucasian Albania, etc. CITY AGDAM is the administrative center of the Agdam district, the distance from Baku – 362 km. Agdam was also one of the major cities located on the plain of Karabakh. Türkic tribes often built small fortresses on the plains to protect themselves from enemies – in ancient Turkic the word “agdam” means “small fortress”. Later, the word “agdam” acquired a value that coincides with the modern – “bright”, “white”. This is due to the fact that one of the Karabakh khans – Panahali – built a white stone house in the 18th century. It was a whole complex of harmonious buildings – white stone Imaret. In Agdam there is an unusual museum – the Museum of Bread. Here are collected unique exhibits – archaeological finds related to bread and grain growing. These are fossilized grains, grain-grinders, hand-mills, utensils, old books, manuscripts, various materials that tell of the development of tillage, tools of farmers (sickles, plow, threshing board) and so on. SHUSHA SHUSH CITY – remoteness from Baku – 373 km. The city owes its name to the splendid clean and transparent air of the land. “Shusha” means “glass” (Azerbaijanis usually clean air with transparent glass). This is one of the most beautiful cities of our country, blessed by nature with unique springs -. Isa Bulag, Turshsu, Sakina Bulag, ITIS Bulag, Soyug Bulag, SW Bulag, Girkh Bulag, CHARYH Bulag, etc. The birth and subsequent flourishing of the town are connected with the strengthening of the power, gain Khanate of KARABAKH. On both sides in Shusha once powerful fortress walls were preserved. And the beginning of the city was laid by the Karabakh ruler PANAKHALI-khan. He built a fortress and named it Panakhabad (1756-1757 gg.). Later it was renamed after the name of the nearby village of Shusha. Panahali Khan also built other fortresses – Bayat, Shahbulag, strengthened the fortress of Askeran. In the XVIII century the city of Shusha turned into one of the most significant cities of Azerbaijan. Were built around large and thick walls, there were numerous quarters of craftsmen, Shusha merchants traded with the cities of Iran, Moscow, in a silver coin minted PANABADI (Panakhabad). A beautiful city, high in the mountains, was admired by travelers. “The houses are correct, beautiful, high and illuminated by beautiful, numerous windows.The city is built of stone taken from the cliffs on which it is located.The streets are everywhere paved with wide slabs, the roofs are made of wood” – so wrote about Shusha the Russian artist V. Vereshchagin . The quarters of the houses had covered galleries with stone pillars, the market areas were large, and the main square of the city – Meidan – was built up by rows of shops, a two-story caravan-shed, there was a cathedral mosque with two minarets. On the edge of the city there was a “field of races” – JYDYR DYUZY. It was located next to the deep canyon of DASHALTY. Down, to the river DASHALTY, flowing along the bottom of the gorge, led steep stair steps “GYRH PILAKYAN” (“forty steps”). There was also a mysterious cave “Khazin Gala” (“fortress treasure”). Everyone who visited Shusha came here. It is difficult to enumerate all the monuments of architecture and art of the past that Shusha is famous for: 170 artifacts were recorded only in architectural monuments and 160 art. These are museum houses: the poetess Khurshud Banu Natavan, Artillery General Mehmandarov (the heroic defender of Port Arthur), the outstanding composer Uzeir Gadzhibekov, the singer of Byul-Byul, the poet and artist Mir Mohsun Nawab. The castles of Ibrahim Khan and his daughter Gara Beyukhanum; “Ganja Gates”, the fortress wall, etc. This city is called the “Conservatory of the East” – Shusha became the birthplace of many outstanding Azerbaijanis, singers, musicians, great composers and conductors: JABBAR GARYAGDA OGLU, GURBANA PRIMOVA, BULLEY BULYA, SEISIDE SHUSHINSKY, HANA SHUSHINSKY, RASHIDA BEIBUTOV, UZEIRA GADZHIBEKOV, NIYAZI, FIKRETA AMIROV, SULEYMAN ALESKEROVA.Here were born S.AHUNDOV writers A.AGVERDIEV, Vezirov, poetess Khurshud Banu Natavan, poet Kasumbek Zakir, sculptors and painters T. Narimanbekov, Garyagdi and others. Located near Shusha is the city of Khankendi, first mentioned in written sources IX century. It was founded by the Turkic tribes, whose name was at first the name of the city – VERENDE. At the end of the XVIII century the son of Panahali Khan, MEHDI Kuli Khan founded on this place a large settlement and named it Khankendi (Khan’s village), and then gave it to his wife PERIDZHAN Begim. In 1923 the town was renamed to Stepanakert, but after the collapse of the USSR, Azerbaijan gained independence, its original name was returned. Kalbajar Kelbadzhar area is on the slopes of the Lesser Caucasus. The administrative center is the city of Gyalbadzhar, which means “high pass”, “high terrain”. The distance from Baku is 445 km. This area is famous for its mineral springs, including thermal springs. And the most famous mineral water – ISTISU (“hot water”) – gave the name and the local resort. No less than healing springs are at an altitude of 2000-2400 m, on the banks of the river TERTER (31 sources). In terms of their chemical composition, they are almost identical and even surpass the world-famous waters of KARLOVA VARY (Czech Republic). It should be noted that the natural landscape, historical and architectural monuments, transit-communication network of Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding districts, occupied by Armenia, were destroyed by them, in a word, the region’s tourism infrastructure has been completely destroyed.