Baku Touristic Zone
If the outlines of Azerbaijan on the map are similar to a bird flying to the sea, its “beak” is the ABERSHERON PENINSULA, on the south-western coast of which there is an ancient and eternally young city. This is BAKU – CAPITAL OF AZERBAIJAN.
COORDINATES:39 deg.39 min. – 40 gr. 03 min. N, 49 g. 39 min. – 49 gr. 39 min. E. The population is about 2 million people. Despite the fact that Baku is administratively separated from the settlements of Absheron (there are 32 of them), historically they are inseparable from the capital. As in cultural, economic, and in a spatial sense. Therefore, the whole Absheron peninsula together with the capital is called “Big Baku”. At Absheron and in Baku there are hub transport routes: International AIRPORT them. Heydar Aliyev, the Large Sea Port in Baku Bay (the largest on the entire Caspian Sea), the railway station in Baku, the highway that connects the capital with the regions. From here, from Absheron, the main trunk PIPELINES for the transportation of oil and gas begin. Baku is the key point of the international transport corridor (Europe-Caucasus-Asia) of TRACECA, within which Azerbaijan participates in the revival of the historical route of the Great Silk Road.
CLIMATE. The Absheron peninsula is 28 m below the level of the World Ocean. The climate of BAKU and ABSHERON is moderately warm semi-deserts and steppes, with winds typical only for Absheron. The northern wind “Khazri” brings coolness in the summer and is piercingly cold in winter; Southern “GILAVAR” in the summer gives heat, but in winter the cold softens. In general, however, the climate of modern Baku has greatly softened the gardens and parks that Bakuis are lovingly growing. If on the streets of Baku in the beginning of the XXth it was sometimes impossible to leave because of a strong wind with dust, today Baku has become a warm and cozy city for living.
USEFUL FOSSILS- oil, gas, building stone (limestone – “bamdash”), salt, sand, lime. Salt Lakes Absheron-Masazir, Gala, Boyuk-Shor, Khojasan. At Absheron are some of the world’s oldest oil wells, from where people drew oil by buckets, and one of the first industrial oil wells.
MUD VOLCANOES – A BEAUTIFUL NATURAL SCIENCE. Azerbaijan ranks first in the world in the number and diversity of mud volcanoes. Of the 800 mud volcanoes known in various countries of the globe, 400 are within the South Caspian oil and gas basin, more than 300 of them – on land of Azerbaijan and its Caspian water area – in the sea and on numerous islands. In Azerbaijan, there are all kinds of mud volcanoes in the world. This is a real natural storage and a natural laboratory of mud volcanism. Therefore, in recent years Baku has become the venue for international scientific forums on mud volcanism, geodynamics and seismicity. Mud volcanoes are also increasingly attracting the attention of tourists visiting the country. Deserted and rocky landscapes of Absheron with volcanoes remind us of the youth of our planet when it did not have a human being, or lunar landscapes. But the volcanoes of Azerbaijan are alive, breathing …
Petroglyphs of Gobustan – a museum under the open sky.Rock paintings – petroglyphs – is an artistic “archive” of human evolution on planet Earth. The “documents” of such archives are the first broadcast of the human “I” to the surrounding world. There are several such “archives” in the open air in Azerbaijan. One of them, the largest one, is in Gobustan, – the Baku State Historical and Ethnographic and Art Reserve, not far from Baku. It is a rock massif at the foot of the southeastern part of the Greater Caucasus Range, close to the Caspian Sea and a modern highway laid along the ancient Shirvan road. Here, a huge number of rock paintings, sheltered dwellings, ancient man’s sites, burial mounds were discovered. The archaeologists who devoted 35 years to studying Gobustan – the married couple D. Rustamov and F. Muradova – believe that the oldest part of Gobustan’s petroglyphs is the most optimistic and, despite the simplicity of the form of self-expression, a very informative picture of a person’s life at the dawn of its development. They investigated about 20 prompting dwellings and settlements, excavated about 40 mounds, revealed 300 new rocks and stones with drawings. However, the rocks of Gobustan are not only witnesses of the most ancient period of human life. Here, the history of the life of this region of 15 thousand years, from the end of the Upper Paleolithic to the Middle Ages, was reflected. The first researcher of Gobustan, who in 1939 declared world science about this unique place, was the archaeologist Iskhak Jafarzade. To date, more than 4,000 petroglyphs have been identified and studied (rock carvings in the stone carving technique). These are images of hunting, fishing, scenes of everyday life, collective dance, various symbols, including solar (swastika, spiral, cross), constellations; Men and women (it is interesting that women hunted together with men); Images of animals – gazelles, tours, lions, goats; Drawings of reed boats, carts on two wheels, human tracks. Preserved an unusual “dishes” – grooves, carved into stone and even decorated with ornaments. There are also unusual “musical instruments” – stones that produce strong sounds, each has its own timbre. This “HAVAL DASH” – a stone-tambourine. The rocks of Gobustan also preserved the testimony of being here in the 1st century AD. Roman legionaries, who did not ignore this attractive region for conquest. Here, a rock with an inscription in Latin, made by the Roman centurions of the 11th Lightning Legion, was discovered. It notes that in Rome at this time ruled the emperor Domitian Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Now Gobustan is nominated for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
History of Absheron Climatogeographical and geological factors contributed to the fact that the entire Absheron along with the territory of Baku was inhabited already 20,000 years ago (the site of an ancient man near the settlement of Yeni-Surakhani). The entire peninsula is dotted with ancient man’s sites, mounds of the Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Here, also found are not found in other regions of Azerbaijan and the Caucasus types of ancient burial complexes with graves of anthropomorphic figures made of stone and with plot patterns (Dyubianda, Turkyan, Khashakhun, Mardakyan, Shuvelyan). In Pirallakhi, on the Zykh Lake, in the Binagadi and Amirjanian settlements of the ancient man (3-1 thousand BC) were found. All this suggests that the whole Absheron was one of the places that already in the distant past attracted a person for peaceful living. But the geostrategic position of the peninsula also strongly attracted various conquerors. The largest of the Absheron settlements is MASHTAGA. Here, in addition to the settlements of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, later monuments were preserved: MECHETS: BIRY ARGUTAY (1414), KHOJA AYDAMIR, GAZHYAN, KHOJALA KHERBALAI HUSSEIN (XVIII century); Mosque of the XIII-XIV centuries. With a minaret 40 meters high, attached to it later. BANYA XVII century; OVDAN (a water basin of XIX century); MAUSOLES: AGILBABA, KHODZHA ASLANAN, GASANBEK, HODGE AYDAMIR (XVIII century). “GALA” – Baku State Historical and Ethnographic Reserve in the Absheron village of GALA. Here are preserved ancient mosques, ancient roads, ovdans, ancient cemetery (XV century), baths, settlements of the Bronze Age. Gala – a typical Absheron settlement, which is sometimes called “Icheri Sheher” Absheron. The temple of the fire-worshipers ATEHGYAKH (House of Fire) in the village of SURAKHANA (XVII century) is of great interest to the guests of Baku. He stands on a rock where natural gas outlets burned for thousands of years. Near the village of Muhammadli one can observe an interesting natural phenomenon: the escape of burning natural gases at the foot of the rock. This place is called YANAR DAG – “Burning Mountain”. In ancient times there were many such places on Absheron. Across the Absheron are also found the oldest, prehistoric ruts – LEI – the absolute analogues of the mysterious “road ruts” on the island of Malta. Many of them lead directly to the sea, getting lost in the depths … BAKU. This city became one of the first seaports on the Caspian coast in ancient times. According to one of the ancient sea routes – along the Volga to Astrakhan, from there by sea – the boats of conquerors, and peaceful commercial caravans with which merchants and travelers came from Russia and European countries came to Baku. From here they could go further: to the southwest, through Georgia to the Black Sea countries, to the east – to Persia, China, India. If all of Azerbaijan is a country on the conditional border of Europe and Asia, then Baku-Absheron is one of the main gates through which the inhabitants of European countries went to get to know Asia more closely. And the residents of the Asian and Far Eastern countries who aspired to Europe did not bypass Baku. Here was one of the branches of the Great Silk Road. Some written sources mention the city of Baruca of ancient Caucasian Albania. Scientists believe that this applies to Baku. Bagavan, Atesh-i Bagavan, Bakuh, Bakuya, Bad-Kube, Baku, Baka are the oldest names of the city of Baku, found in various written sources of antiquity. In the period when the state of Shirvanshahs was formed, Baku gained even greater importance. In the XII century. After a strong earthquake that strongly damaged Shemakha, the capital of the Shirvan state, Shirvanshah Akhsitan 1, who also lost his wife and children, moved to Baku. So Baku became one of the main cities of Shirvan. Shirvanshah found a new capital, erected the fortress walls of Icheri-Shekher, they were surrounded by a moat; The population was engaged in crafts – carpets, copper and bronze ware, weapons (today much is stored in museums around the world). Baku turned into a strategic port on the Caspian Sea, which created additional conditions for its flourishing. A powerful fleet was built on the Caspian Sea by the Shirvanshahs. Under Shirvanshah Khalilullah 1 (1417-1462) large construction works were conducted in Baku, the economy and culture were strengthened. In 1501, Baku was captured by Shah ISMAIL SEFAVID, and under SHAKH TAKHMASIBE (1538) the state of Shirvanshahs became part of the state of SEPHEVID. This state disintegrated in the 18th century, after which an independent BAKU HOSPITAL was formed here. At this time, the Russian Empire has increased geopolitical interest in the Caucasus. And Baku is acquiring special significance in this context. The Caspian campaign of the Russian Tsar PETRA 1 was held, which organized in 1723 the expedition to the Caspian Sea. In the same year, Peter’s troops conquered the Caspian region, including Baku, Shemakha, Shirvan, Derbent and the Caspian littoral cities of Iran. The wars between Russia and Iran culminated in the conclusion in 1813 of the GULISTAN peace treaty, according to which Azerbaijan was divided. The northern one has moved to Russia, the South one has gone to Iran.
MONUMENTS OF BAKU. From the historical monuments of Baku, the Old City – ICHERI-SHEKHER, which is surrounded by a large fortified wall on three sides, is of great interest. Here is the palace of Shirvanshahs with a complex of various structures (tomb, the palace mosque, Divan-room palace, mausoleum of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi (mausoleum of a dervish.) – a court scientist palace was built Shirvanshakhs Khalilullah 1 (1417-1462 biennium) and his son Farrukh Yasar. (1462-1501 gg). from ancient monuments ICHERI-SHEKHER interesting example JUMA MOSQUE-labeled Sultan Oljaitu (XIII c.). The narrow streets ICHERI-SHEKHER where the passage between the buildings sometimes reaches the size of stretched arms single , Many shops where you can riobresti ancient and modern wares of local craftsmen: carpets, ceramics, copperware etc. Here in Icheri Sheher, in buildings of ancient caravanserais there are restaurants where you can get acquainted with the cuisine of Azerbaijan If you look at the city from above, from the Upland Park.. , or by the sea, it is clear that the city is located amphitheater on the slopes of rocky hills, it is like a bowl on the sea. and on the edge of the Icheri Sheher, near the big Baku Boulevard is one of the most significant historical and architectural monuments of the country S, which became the symbol of Baku – KHAZ GALAS (“Maiden Tower”). Giz Galasy dates back to the XII century, scientists believe that the Tower was of military and defensive importance and is a part of the whole complex of defensive structures, which begins at the northern borders of Azerbaijan -. From the Derbent fortress Gilgichai fortifications (long wall, which rises in the sea , Which had many fortresses along the entire length and ends in the mountains with the large Chirag-gala tower). However, not all the secrets of GALAZA scientists have been able to solve the problem to date. There are, for example, facts that indicate a much earlier time for the construction of the tower. KAZAKHSTAN – a unique example of the history and architecture of the country, many Bakuis attribute not only cult, defensive and scientific (astronomical) significance, but also esoteric. Therefore, urban folklore contains many legends both about the tower itself and its name. It is also believed that in the sea, near Baku, once there was another similar tower. However, only the following is known reliably. In 1235 Shirvanshah Fariburs 3 built fortifications on one of the rocky islands of Bayil Bay (the outskirts of present-day Baku, the oldest oil producing region). There was a castle in the form of an irregular rectangle 180 meters long and 40 meters wide. It was surrounded by a fortress wall 1.5-2 meters thick and had 15 watchtowers. On the upper part of the fortress there was an inscription 400 m long, which described the genealogy of the Shirvanshah dynasty. On one of the surviving stones one can read the inscription “Bender-and-Baku” (“BAKU Port”). It was a sea fortress on the outskirts of the city, since the Shirvanshahs already had a strong fleet at the end of the 12th century. In the XIII century. The Mongols for a long time besieged the fortress, destroyed much of the siege weapons, but could not take the fortress. This island with a castle is 350 meters from the shore. In 1306, after the earthquake and the subsequent rise in the level of the Caspian, the island, together with the fortress, disappeared under water. During archeological excavations from the sea floor was raised about 700 stones with inscriptions, pottery fragments and whole vessels, copper coins of Shirvanshah Kershasb (XIII century), fragments of pottery pipes. Some of the stones are now on display in the courtyard of the Shirvanshah Palace. And the underwater fortress itself is known as “SHAHRI SABA”, “Sabail castle” or “Bailovsky stones”. Today Baku is a modern city with a peculiar charm of the East and features inherent in the modern metropolis. Here, in the capital, you can visit museums: History of Azerbaijan, literature, music culture, carpet, theater. Memorial museums: the founder of modern Azerbaijani music U. GADZHIBEKOV; The famous Azerbaijani composer NIYAZI; Composer and performer of jazz V.Mustafazade; The world-famous musician, born in Baku, M. Rostropovich; Writers and playwrights: G.Javid, D.Jabbarly, MSurdubadi; A unique museum of the Miniature Book. In the capital a large number of exhibition and concert halls, art galleries, theaters; Sports complexes, stadiums, swimming pools; Numerous hotels, restaurants. And around Baku, along the whole perimeter of Absheron peninsula, there are a lot of beaches. You can swim and sunbathe on Absheron for 5 months a year, there are many warm and hot sunny days. When the summer day heat falls and the sun goes down, discos and night clubs begin to work on the beaches. To the services of tourists and tourists – a large number of hotels, holiday homes and sanatoriums on the shore of the Caspian Sea.