Yuxarı Keçid

Flora

The territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan has a rich flora. Over 4,500 species of flowering plants are distributed here. According to the total number of species, the flora of Azerbaijan is much richer, unlike other republics of the South Caucasus. The plant species in Azerbaijan account for 66% of the total number of plant species in the Caucasus.planting_01_1The richness of the flora and the diversity of the vegetation cover of the Republic of Azerbaijan are associated with its physico-geographical and natural-historical conditions, as well as a complex history formed under the influence of remote floristic sites. The Republic of Azerbaijan is also rich in relict species belonging to the third period, whose representatives can often be found in all zones, especially in the Talysh zone. These include the iron tree, the Lankaran acacia, the chestnut-oak tree, the Caucasian persimmon, and others. All areal types are found in the Azerbaijan flora. Ancient forests, boreal, steppes, xerophytes, deserts, adventive plant types. Types of ancient forests are mainly found in the Talysh zone, boreal types in the mountainous zones of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and in smaller numbers in the lower belts. Types of xerophyll, steppe, desert, Caucasus are common in the plains, in the foothills, in the majority in the Kura-Araz lowland. The adventive areal type is rather rare – in the Kura-Araz lowland, in the Caspian coast, on lakes, lawns, in non-current waters and swampy places.planting_01_2On rivers and around water distribution channels, in wetlands, in local forms – in lowland areas, it is often possible to meet reed thickets of cosmopolitan composition. In these wetlands there are many such plants as the foxtail, tall (grass), saxifrage, perches, broom. Here, thickets and tall trees of the savannah-type eranthus are created. Frequently encountered in the Kura-Araz lowlands, thickets of malt, swine (dog tooth), tuberkamyshm are relatively common. On the Karabakh plain plant species of camel leg, buckwheat, crochet, derbennik, lily (kataktik) create difficulties and are found in other thickets. In stagnant waters and ports (especially in the port of Agzybirzhal) there are thickets consisting of reeds, saxifrage, rdest and other plants. In swamps, in warm places, special thickets are created by salvinia, saxifrage, and rdest. In wetlands, in hot places, salvina, water chestnut, fringed grass, and carnivorous plants create special thickets and find their place in the Kura-Araz lowland. For the flat areas, the reed beds are also characteristic. In the marshes of the Talysh plains, special formations are formed by salvinia, lily, rdest, water chestnut, yellow swamp lily (tangent). For dry bogs, plants such as mint, needle, buttercup, and sporich are characteristic. Wetland vegetation can be found in the lower, middle, upper and high-mountain belts. Especially in the subalpine zones, wetland vegetation is widespread. In these belts there are over 100 marshes and lakes. In the Kura-Araz lowlands, coastal and other plains, the advantage is a desert and semi-desert type of vegetation cover. In the deserts the most common is the black-earth solianka. Its branches stretching along the ground create small hills mainly around Lokbatan, on Mugani, in Eastern Shirvan. Deserts with yellow hills are most often found around the Caspian Sea and the Kura-Araz lowland.planting_01_3Deserts – saltworts are widespread in these zones. In these deserts, in contrast to the above desert plants, there are 5-6 species of ephemeral varieties of plants. In eastern Shirvan and foothill areas, the Swedes form deserts. Three types of saltwort on the wide sections of the Kura-Araz lowland create productive semi-deserts. Especially mountain solyanka at the foot of the mountains separately and together with wormwood create a desert, in the most developed lands form a semi-desert. Tree-like solyanka is found on not very saline lands; The composition of the season is rich in dozens of different ephemerals and ephemeroid plants. Tree-like solyanka creates semi-desert thickets mainly with wormwood, camel’s thorns and malt. In general, there are 22 kinds of saltwort in the republic, most of them form special formations. Solyanka can be found on not very salty Sheki meadows. A place overgrown with wormwood is one of the most common types of desert; Occurs on various lands, especially gray and slightly saline areas. Most often, wormwood together with a hodgepodge or perennial grain varieties create mixed semi-desert formations. In all places overgrown with wormwood, there are 30-35 and sometimes 50-55 ephemeral and ephemeric plants. For example, bulbous pendulum, bonfire, hard tare, east apron, crane grass, small alfalfa, blue alfalfa. In a place overgrown with wormwood, sometimes shrubs grow. On sandstones around the sea and extracted sands from the bottom of the sea, you can find other species of wormwood (sand or sea wormwood), Iranian lard “sarmashig” (ivy) and hundreds of other ephemeral plants. On Absheron sandstones, many valuable and rare plant species do not live long, their development is activated in the spring and quickly fades. In the steppe and steppe zones, the comb-shaped bonfire and other various perennial grasses are the plants that make up the majority. Mountain xerophytic vegetation often forms special formations, united with the steppe.planting_01_4In dry and hot regions of the republic (Nakhchivan AR, Jebrail, Zangelan), on the steppe mountain plateaus of the Greater Caucasus, one can find vegetation xerophyte – frigana, prickly astragalus, lichen, acanthus lemon, sometimes juniper, juniper and pistachio in places. The Frinalals in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, at an altitude of 1000-1,500 meters, form independent formations (thickets). In these formations, more than 300 varieties of vegetation can be found. In arid regions, thyme and its formations create thyme and its species. Tumil areas are characterized by field mint, buckthorn, Kurchatov. On the sites of this type there are plants such as spurge, yarrow, barberry. In the republic, in local form, you can find lichen, dzhidirevo, buckthorn, pyrocant, mordovnik; The bladder also form special formations and directly participate in the formation of good mountain-xerophytic vegetation. Being typical for the republic formations, juniper, nettle, tree-root and scumia (yolk-grass) form a separate vegetation cover. In the north-west of the republic, on the steppe meadows of the Eldar plain, the Eldar pine relic pine remains – the remainder of the third period. Presence of juniper pine, pistachio, 30-35 species in the forest massif of the Eldar pine allows us to say that these places can be attributed to mountain-xerophytic vegetation. planting_01_5Along the Kura, Araz, Ganykh and Gabyrr rivers, tugai forests stretch in a ribbon-shaped, local form. The basis of these forests are such trees and bushes as poplar, willow, here, elm, tamarisk, garnet, loch. Sometimes some mixed forests are restored along mountain rivers or river valleys. Here, mostly here, blackberries, pomegranate, dog rose, tamarisk, sea buckthorn, sucker, dried barberry, scullia. Sea buckthorn is most common in the valleys of the rivers Shin, Kish, Demiraparag, Turyan, Goychay, Akhmu, Vyalvyav and Terter. Around the Talish River, alder and palyn often forms large forest thickets. Another species of alder – Alnus barbata, is most typical for the Talish wetlands. In the Talysh forests, the local endemic species of figs grow, yellow swamp lily, frog grass create special formations. In the Guba-Khachmaz and Garabagh zones, as well as in the Alazan-Irichay depression, flatland forest massifs of local form are distributed. In the forests of the Alazan-Irichay depression, along with these, there are also plant species such as maple, ash, linden, pear, and vine, the most common are wild grapes, anemone, rocky ivy.planting_01_6Among the tree species characteristic of the Talysh plain forests, one can name an iron tree and a chestnut-oak tree. In addition to these relict trees, here there are Caucasian hornbeam, 2 kinds of zelkva, elm, low poplar, and also plantations of Hyrkan type. On the lower levels of these forests there are evergreen shrubs, for example, dana. Caucasian persimmon on damp hills creates special thickets. The tree called Khazar Shatanagaggi predominates mainly on Talysh. On the elevations of these forests, overlooking the sea, Lanka Uranus, linden and other plants form mixed forest tracts. At a height slightly above sea level, another variety of maple together with beech forms high dense forests. At the lower levels of these forests grow yew and in a small amount danae, forming a special “storey”. In the mountainous zones of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, at a height of 600- 1800 meters above sea level, there are broad-leaved forests. In these forests grow Georgian oak, on high mountain belts eastern oak. On the height of the mountains is very common Georgian oak, wild pear. Beech thickets create dense and productive forests here. In addition to beech and oak, in these forests grow 5-6 species of linden, hornbeam, especially together with the eastern oak, the lime tree trautfetter. In very dense thickets of beech there is no grass, but in the thinned patches there is grass. Under the ground you can find a blackberry, a scabbard, elderberry, spindle grass and dozens of wheat grass. On high mountain belts (1800-2000 meters) there are forests of park type. Together with subalpine glades and high grass, they form subalpine woodlands.planting_01_7Highlands are characterized by eastern oak, on northern slopes – birch forests, with curved trees due to snow avalanches, and on high mountain slopes of the Greater Caucasus rhododendron and rarely – Caucasian mountain ash. Coniferous forests in local form on the Eldar Plain (Eldar pine), in the mountainous areas of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus (pine of the Kokhskaya), especially in the basin of the Bulannig River, tea of ​​the Belokansky district, around Lake Goy Gel (at an altitude of 1600 meters) form small And mixed forests. Many species of coniferous (needle) – yew and juniper, are widespread in mountain forest zones. In the northwestern zone of the Greater Caucasus, especially in the subalpine belts of the Belokan-Zagatala region, thickets of the Caucasian rhododendron are found in small areas.planting_01_8At a mark of 1800-3200 meters above sea level, subalpine, alpine and field vegetation of various composition prevails. The present subalpine meadow, depending on the terrain and nature of the mountains and spreading in dozens of variants, form different formations. On the subalpine belts, tall grass also creates special formations; The composition is different. High grass and subalpine plants mainly consist of plant varieties grown in the forest. High grass is especially rich in nettles, representatives of the family cowberry, yarrow, hedgehog, falconry, broom (soft sorghum), horse sorrel, ragwort, hathma (sweet clover), flower petals. In the subalpine belt, mainly glades of different composition, meadow and mesophyll glades, steppe glades, dry xerophytes are distributed. The basis of the subalpine glade is composed of many species of trilitic and lame clover, geranium, belorussian, zhoster, tonkonog, cauliflower, violet barley, alpine bluegrass, geranium, cuff, bigist, elecampane. Here, plantain, scabiosis, zhiruha, coral grass, primrose (snowdrop), goat seedling, chamomile, bed-maturing, ragwort, cephalaria are characteristic here. About 1 thousand species of plants are distributed on the subalpine glade. At the tops of the high mountains of alpine meadows, on steep hills, saddle-shaped passes are slightly smaller, in comparison with subalpine meadows, low-growth types of plants are encountered. Alpine carpets consist of two groups of formations: real alpine carpets (cumin, plantain, cuff, dandelion) and alpine carpets on rocky terrain (sibbaldia, bell).