Culture of Azerbaijan
The beautiful nature, favorable climatic conditions and natural resources of this region also had a significant impact on the artistic thinking and creativity of the Azerbaijani people. Although each art form of our country itself has passed a long and complex path of development, nevertheless, they form a single whole and allow us to make a complete picture of the art and culture of Azerbaijan. The art of Azerbaijan, like its nature, is diverse, holistic and rich.
One of the most important places in the source of creativity of the Azerbaijani people is his life and everyday life, folk handicrafts related to his daily life. This art, from ancient times up to our days, covers a very wide sphere, from clothing to various ornaments and household implements.
Naturally, the style of life, aesthetic tastes, in a word, its national identity, are strongly reflected in this art form. It is no accident that today the richest museums in the world you can find many fine examples of folk art of Azerbaijan. The rich exposition of the museum collections of the London Victoria and Albert Museum, the Louvre in Paris, Washington Metro, Vienna Museum, Rome, Berlin, Istanbul, Tehran, Cairo, you can find samples of folk arts and crafts created by the skillful hands of the masters of Tabriz, Nakhchivan, Ganja, Gazakh , Lips, Baku, Sheki, Shamakhi and Karabakh.
Azerbaijani folk crafts, created thanks to the efforts of our people and widely used in his life and life, have a great and rich history. Works of art made of metal, found in Nakhchivan, Mingachevir, Kedabek, Gazakh, Ganja and other localities, have a history of about 5000 years. The samples of dishes, weapons and ornaments found on these territories are the most valuable sources, not only as a historical fact, but also as a source of information on the skill of people whose hands were created by these samples.
The objects of material culture found during the excavations on the territory of Azerbaijan convincingly testify that our ancestors, in the second millennium BC, made utensils, daggers, axes, belts and other objects of decoration of elegant forms from bronze and used them in life and everyday life. This indicates that the masters of copper products and jewelers were engaged in these crafts in ancient times.
Among the samples of objects made of metal, there are those, whose decorations and images we can get acquainted with the customs and traditions of people of that time, their religious views and even their clothes.
The historical, ethnographic and artistic features of folk art are reflected in clothing. This feature manifests itself in clothes of a certain form and its ornaments, as well as in samples of artistic sewing, knitting and textiles.
During archaeological excavations, a needle and an awl made of bronze at the beginning of the Bronze Age (III millennium BC) were discovered on the territory of Azerbaijan. These finds indicate that the ancient inhabitants of Azerbaijan were able to sew their own clothes. Clay sculptures found in Kültep and Mingachevir (II millennium BC) and seal-napalechniki, dating back to the V century BC, allow you to make a definite idea of the clothes of that time. And in the graves of the Mingachevir catacomb (V-VI centuries AD), the remains of clothing made of various silk fabrics were found. During the excavations also found numerous items of gold jewelry, dating back to the III-IV century BC. And pottery in the form of shoes, convincingly attesting that the Azerbaijanis had a high material culture since ancient times. Various drawings depicted on household utensils and decorations made of copper, bronze and gold, prove the existence of fine art in these parts in ancient times. P>
The figure of a horse, found in the city of Maku of South Azerbaijan, made of clay (II millennium BC), adorned with patterns of various colors, and the golden cupola found on the hill of Hasanli near Lake Urmia (I millennium BC), on which a lion with a horsecloth on his back was depicted, testify that the art of carpet weaving, which is one of the branches of the national art of Azerbaijan, has a very long history.
During archaeological excavations in Mingechevir, in the graves-catacombs belonging to the I-III centuries, remains of carpets and carpets were found.
According to archaeological materials and written sources, carpet weaving in Azerbaijan has been engaged since the Bronze Age (the end of II millennium AD beginning I thousand). Herodotus, Claudius Elian, Xenophon and other historians of the ancient world reported on the development of carpet weaving in Azerbaijan.
At different times carpets were woven in some schools of carpet weaving in Azerbaijan (Guba, Baku, Shirvan, Ganja, Gazakh, Garabagh, Tabriz), the beauty of which people admire to this day. Many of them are kept in famous museums of the world.
Among the most ancient specimens of fine art, rock carvings of Gobustan, belonging to the 8th-5th centuries, are of great importance. BC, drawings in the mountains of Aichyngylly and Perichyngyl around Lake Zalkh in the Kelbajar region, dating back to the beginning of the Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC), and rock carvings in the Gemigaya mountains north of the city of Ordubad. Of particular interest are images depicted on the rocks of Gobustan. Here are depicted individual dynamic stories related to hunting, livestock, agriculture and other industries, various scenes, images of people and animals. Gobustan rock paintings-pictograms cover a centuries-old historical period from the primitive communal system to the stage of feudalism.
Since ancient times, Azerbaijan has become famous not only for works of fine art, but also for works of architecture, which is one of the branches of folk art. The Maiden Tower and the Shirvanshahs Palace complex in Baku; Mausoleums Momine Khatun and Yusif ibn Kuseyir, created by the famous architect Ajami in Nakhchivan; The palace of Panahali Khan, the house of poet Natavan in Shusha; Drawings on the walls of the palace of Sheki khans, are rare pearls of architectural art.
Among the Gobustan rock paintings, a drawing deserves special interest, which depicts people performing the “yalla” dance. These drawings show that the Azerbaijani people have been interested in music since ancient times.
The Country of Lights, which is the homeland of the Azerbaijani people, which has a rich cultural heritage, is also known as the Motherland of charming music.
Azerbaijani music, which has enriched the treasury of the world musical culture with its rare pearls, has centuries-old traditions. Creators of folk music, who created a huge and rich heritage through the continuation of these traditions from generation to generation, made a huge contribution to the development of Azerbaijani music.
In the Azerbaijani national musical art, such genres as folk songs, dances and ashug creativity take their place.
The cornerstone, the foundation of Azerbaijani national music are mugams. It is no coincidence that in 2003 the decision of UNESCO – the specialized UN organization, the Azerbaijani mughams were included in the list of cultural heritage of all mankind.
Since ancient times, our national music has developed in parallel with literature, for example, the art of mugham developed together with eastern poetry. So, in the performance of mughams, the geezels of the great poets of the Azerbaijani people Nizami, Khagani, Fuzuli, Nasimi sang the khanende. The most common genres of Azerbaijani national poetry are goshma, muhammes, udadname, gyphylbend, and its poetic forms are gerailas, divani, goshma, tejnis, Which are the most favorite forms of ashug creative work.
Literary works created by our classics and contemporaries occupy a special place of honor in the treasury of world culture. Works created by our poets and writers – MF Akhundov, NB Vezirov, MS Ordubadi, GB Zakir, MA Sabir, J. Mamedkulizade, M.P.Vagif, M. V.Vidadi and many others, and to this day have not lost their high artistic and aesthetic value.
Another kind of art, closely associated with Azerbaijani literature, is theatrical art. The roots of the theatrical art in Azerbaijan are associated with activities, life, solemn and wedding traditions, as well as the worldview of the Azerbaijani people. Elements of the play, present in ceremonies, rituals and games, played an important role in the formation of an independent folk theater. The Azerbaijan People’s Theater has always been realistic and has been closely associated with the working people. The repertoire of the national theater consisted of small plays (farces) of a certain ethical content. In the formation of professional Azerbaijani theater, a significant role belongs to the people’s theater. The history of the theatrical art, whose roots go back to ancient times, begins with the plays “The Vizier of the Lankaran Khanate” and “Haji Gara” by MF Akhundov, staged in March and April 1873 in Baku. The repertoire of the Azerbaijani theater, which has undergone a difficult path of development, has now significantly expanded. Today, the Azerbaijani spectator has an opportunity to see various performances prepared at a rather high professional level in the productions of the Academic National Drama Theater, the Baku Municipal Theater, the Pantomime Theater, the Young Spectator Theater and other theaters operating in Azerbaijan.
The most interesting and most popular art form of our time is considered to be cinema, which organically penetrated the life of the people and became its integral part. Cinematography, which is a relatively new kind of art, reveals the depths of human hearts and new horizons of life. From year to year our national cinema has accumulated a wealth of experience. In certain types and genres of cinema art, numerous works have been created reflecting the life of our people and the problems that it faces. These films are carefully preserved for future generations and have become the spiritual wealth of our people.
Azerbaijani art, like the history of our people, is ancient and rich. The study of certain types of theater, cinema, music and folk art, which passed a complex and long way of development, testifies to the high cultural heritage of the Azerbaijani people. Artists and artists of Azerbaijan constantly made efforts to bring our national culture to the world community and partially achieved this goal. This is clearly and eloquently evidenced by the following facts: on the initiative of UNESCO, the Azerbaijani mugham is included in the list of the cultural heritage of mankind, the outstanding master of cinema, film dramatist and film director R.Ibrahimbekov was awarded the Oscar prize, and samples of needlework and carpets woven by folk artists at different times, Are kept in the most famous museums in the world.